This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
That ethics, as a set of moral codes or principles, should apply to the environment, arose with increasing awareness of environmental problems, for example consequent upon increased human population, conservation of resources, nuclear power developments, or pollution. Environmental ethics should foster a closer relationship between humans and nature, countering the historical antipathy of Western philosophy to conservation, environmentalism and their values, which had led Europeans to encourage human alienation from the natural environment and an exploitative practical relationship with it. A ‘land ethic’ was proposed by Aldo Leopold (1949), to change the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it, but not until the ‘green movement’ of the 1980s did environmental issues become the concern ...