This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Ecological Engineering

Ecological engineering

This term was first defined by H.T. Odum in 1962 as ‘environmental manipulation by man using small amounts of supplementary energy to control systems in which the main energy drives are still coming from natural sources’. This was because although the energy supplied by man is small relative to natural sources it can be sufficient to produce large effects. Hence there was a perceived need to provide more ecologically sound methods of environmental management so that in China since 1978 the term ‘ecological engineering’ has been used. Ecological engineering employs biological species, communities, ecosystems together with self-design through ecotechnology to achieve a more sustainable and less harsh management solution. It employs natural energy sources and self-regulating processes to design, construct, operate and ...

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