This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Climate sensitivity refers to the change in surface air temperature for a given unit change in radiative forcing, expressed in units of, for example, °C or K /(W/m2). The evaluation of climate sensitivity from models requires detailed simulations with local climate models. It can be achieved with observational analysis. For example, Shaviv in 2005 did an analysis for six different timescales, ranging from an 11–year solar cycle to the climate variations over geological timescales. What was found was a typical sensitivity of from 1.3°C to 2.0°C. Using simple climate models, Andronoma and Schlesinger in 2006 found that the sensitivity could be between 1 and 10°C. The exact range depends on which factors are most important during the instrumental period. Forest et al. ...