This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Climate Forcing and Feedbacks

Climate forcing and feedbacks

Climate forcing and feedbacks include processes among atmospheric constituents that sway the climate in given directions from its equilibrium condition. The combined effects of climate forcing lead to alteration of the Earths radiation budget (Fig. 74). Changes in radiation are not only affected by changing concentrations of gases and particles in the atmosphere, but also by external sources such as Earth–Sun orbital factors. Any change that causes enhanced changes in the same direction is a positive feedback. Conversely, if a change in the environment leads to a process that dampens any change, it is a negative feedback. In most climate change research, the focus is on the atmospheric radiation forcing the climate system. Major research has focused on radiative ...

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