This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Climate Change

Climate change

Climate change refers to the variations of Earth's climates over various timescales relative to variability or average weather from decades to millions of years. These changes evolve due to variations from within the Earth-atmosphere system, from extraterrestrial processes, or from human activities, such as greenhouse gas emissions and land-use changes. The term ‘climate change’ is generally used to refer to ongoing climate changes in contemporary times, which are highlighted, for example, by the average rise in air temperature, commonly known as global warming. The extraterrestrial factors include variability of solar radiation and what can be called the ‘Earth–Sun geometry’ (how the Earth's orbital shape differs, and the tilt and wobbling of Earth's axis of rotation differs).

Within the Earth's environment, there are changes that ...

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