This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Rock Classification

Rock classification

The Earth's lithosphere is made up of three broad categories of rocks that are classified primarily on the basis of their origin, but they are identified on the basis of the kind, size, and shapes of the minerals in them. With inevitable exceptions, borderline cases, and overlaps, the rocks of Earth are placed in the following broad categories: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic.

Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks were once molten and have solidified either upon the Earth's surface as extrusive rocks called volcanic rocks – or deep beneath the Earth's surface as intrusive rocks called plutonic rocks. A third class is also distinguished: those molten rocks that have been injected within 1 km or so of the Earth's surface are called hypabyssal rocks and typically ...

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