This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



The Quaternary is that part of geologic time known as the Quaternary Period, which extends from approximately 1.8 million years ago to present. The subdivisions of the Quaternary are the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. The Quaternary, as with the Pleistocene, is characterized by large shifts in climate. Not only did global temperatures vary by several degrees Celsius, but also there were numerous glaciations and interglacial times. During the Quaternary, some areas became cooler and drier while others became warmer and wetter and these periods in time were variable across the landscape. For example, the Quaternary in Northwestern Europe is characterized by long periods of cold climates lasting several hundred thousand years interspersed with warmer conditions that lasted from approximately ten to twenty thousand years. ...

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