This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Stable isotopes are also useful in dating techniques as well as in other applications in environmental sciences. Stable isotopes are non-radioactive isotopes of elements. Most studies have focused on stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and nitrogen. The lightest isotopes of these elements are most abundant. The relative abundances of the isotopes are normally reported as ‘del values’ relative to an accepted standard. This refers to the difference or delta between the sample and the standard. Variations in the relative abundances of stable isotopes of the same element are caused by the preferential reaction or transport of the lighter isotope. This fractionation can occur in physiochemical and biological processes. The selective reaction of a lighter isotope causes the remaining isotopes in ...