This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Ice Cores

Ice cores

These are the columns of ice, usually c. 10–12cm in diameter and up to 3000m long, which are extracted from Antarctica, Greenland and other ice masses for analysis. Each core records annual layers of ice and represents a major way in which the study of the Quaternary has been revolutionized since the 1960s. Characteristics of the layers from the surface downwards provides information about climate changes over periods of up to 800,000 years. This constituted a significant advance: not only is the record composed of annual layers of snow which became compacted into ice, (although deeper into the ice the layers thin and annual layers become indistinguishable), but also the record is uninterrupted. Analysis of ice cores provides various types of information.

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