This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



The Holocene is the most recent interval of geologic time. The Holocene extends from the present back to approximately 11,000 calendar years BP (10,000 BC). The Holocene began following the retreat of the most recent Pleistocene glaciation and generally, it brought with it warming more constant climatic conditions. Minor variations include the Holocene climatic optimum in which the global temperature was a degree or two Celsius warmer than today. The climatic optimum ended approximately five to six thousand years ago when sea levels became more or less stabilized until the most recent more rapid rises due to global warming. Minor exceptions to generally rather consistent climate include the Medieval Warm Period from approximately 1100–1400 AD, which was followed by the Little Ice Age, which lasted ...

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