This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Expert Systems

Expert systems

An expert system is a structured programme that represents knowledge of one or more human experts. This class of programme was first developed by researchers in artificial intelligence during the 1960s and 1970s. An expert system contains a set of rules and may recommend a set of actions as outcomes. Expert systems make use of reasoning capabilities to reach conclusions. They aid, for example, in helping with tasks in the fields of human resources, accounting, medicine, process control, financial service, production, environmental science, meteorology, and climatology. In most applications, problem expertise is encoded in both programme and data structures. The expert system approach is one that emphasizes data structures.

The general architecture of an expert system involves two major components: (a) a problem-dependent set ...

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