This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Biological oxygen demand (BOD)

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the oxygen required to completely oxidize organic matter in a water body. The concept of BOD comes from studies in the first half of the 20th century of sewage treatment and the impact of inadequately treated sewage on oxygen in streams. The amount of organic matter is the critical parameter, but when these concepts were developed, organic matter was difficult to measure and oxygen was easy, and BOD became the standard measure in sewage treatment. The units of BOD are in mg/l of dissolved oxygen required to fully oxidize organic matter. BOD is still widely used today. Before the development of modern sewage treatment plants, untreated sewage was routinely discharged ...

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