This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Genetics is the study of biologically inherited traits and characteristics. These inherited traits are determined by genes that are transmitted to offspring from parents via reproduction. It has been known for millennia that biological traits are inherited and this knowledge has been used extensively to produce organisms with desirable characteristics. These include agricultural plant species, livestock, horses, and dogs. The basic elements and rules of heredity were discovered by the monk Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) in his famous experiments with peas. In the late 19th century, the role of the cell nucleus in genetics was discovered when it was observed that male and female reproductive cells fused during fertilization. By the beginning of the 20th century, chromosomes and their characteristic splitting were discovered and in the ...

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