This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Radiation Balance of the Earth

Radiation balance of the earth

The Radiation Balance refers to recognition of the fact that the Earth and its atmosphere for long time periods are in equilibrium neither drastically heating up or cooling down, although variability and trends may be observed and the system may be out of balance momentarily at the scale of geologic time. Scientists study the details of the components of radiation in short and longwaves of the electromagnetic spectrum to understand fluxes and their causes. Incoming solar radiation is shortwave, therefore the equation below is called the shortwave radiation balance SWB:

GR = global radiation

DSR = direct solar radiation

DiSR = diffuse radiation

RGR = reflected portion of global radiation (ca. 4%)

a = albedo

In the infrared spectrum, the Earth's surface and ...

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