This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Productivity is a measure of the rate of biomass production in natural and agro-ecosystems. It is generally measured as the weight of a material produced per unit volume or area per unit of time. Most often, the material is carbon and the units of production are often g C per m2 per year (or g C m−2 yr−1). However many different units are used (i.e., Kg/ha/yr, bushels per acre per year, etc.). Productivity and biodiversity are probably the two most fundamental measures of the status or nature or essence of an ecosystem. Productivity is a measure of the potential of a system to produce organic carbon and biodiversity is a measure of the numbers and relative abundances of species (or biochemical pathways, habitats, etc.) of ...

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