This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Precipitation is any form of water that falls from the sky to the ground. The form of water includes rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, hail, and virga. A major component of the hydrologic cycle, precipitation is responsible for producing most of the fresh water on the planet. The standard way of measuring rainfall or snowfall is the standard rain gage, which can be found in 4-inch/100mm plastic and 8-inch/200mm metal varieties (Fig. 51). Condensation and coalescence play important roles in the water cycle. When relatively warm, moist air rises, precipitation begins to form. As air cools, water vapour begins to condense on condensation nuclei and forms clouds. After the water droplets grow large enough, one of two processes will likely occur to bring about ...

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