This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Lakes are lentic waterbodies, that is they are standing waterbodies. This is in contrast to lotic waterbodies, which are characterized by running water. Lakes are large enough so that wind-induced mixing plays a major role in mixing. Ponds, by contrast, are small enough that temperature-induced mixing dominates. Lakes form largely as a result of geological processes. The following is a general characterization of lake origins, but often several processes may interact to form lakes.

Glacial lakes are formed by the action of glaciers by several different mechanisms. Lakes can form in depressions on the surface of glaciers or even at the bottom of glaciers as subglacial lakes. Lakes can also form when blocks of glacial ice melt or when permafrost melts and lakes enlarge due ...

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