This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
The term hydrological or water cycle expresses the way in which water in the hydrosphere (the water body of the Earth in liquid, solid or gaseous state and occurring in fresh and saline forms) moves between stores in the oceans (c. 97%), in ground water (c. 0.7%), in ice sheets and glaciers (c. 2%), with smaller amounts in the atmosphere, on land – in lakes and seas and rivers, and in the soil. Solar energy drives the hydrological cycle, providing the lift against gravity necessary as water vapour is transferred by evaporation to form atmospheric moisture and then precipitation. The energy required to drive the global hydrological cycle is equivalent to the output of 40 million major (1000 MW) power stations, and about ...