This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Energy and Mass Balance

Energy and mass balance

Energy and mass balance in climatology relates to the understanding of flows of energy and mass (e.g., water) from the Earth's surface to and from the atmosphere (and from space and to space) at scales ranging from global to local. Over a year, incoming energy in both the Earth and its atmosphere equals the outgoing energy. For the entire Earth-atmosphere system, the amount of radiation entering the system must equal to the amount leaving, or the system would continually heat or cool (see Table 38). Considering just the atmosphere, there is overall radiative cooling. The atmosphere is kept from a net cooling through the addition of latent and sensible heating from the Earth. The atmosphere has a warming effect ...

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