This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
An energy flux is the rate of heat flow across a unit area (such as Joules m−2 s−1) and is composed of radiation, latent, sensible, and subsurface or soil heat fluxes. Radiative flux represents the amount of energy moving in the form of photons at a certain distance from the source per steradian/second. Latent heat flux is heat conveyed to and from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere that is associated primarily with evapotranspiration of water at the surface and from plants and subsequent condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere. When energy is added to water, it will change states or phases. The phase change of a liquid to a gas is called evaporation. At the molecular level, water is comprised of ...