This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Animal Behaviour

Animal behaviour

Behaviour is a fundamental characteristic of animals. Dictionary definitions of behaviour include phrases such as ‘way of behaving or acting, to act or react, to respond to some stimulus.’ Animal behaviour is the scientific study of what an animal ‘does and how it does it.’ Behaviour results from both genetic and environmental factors. But it is not an either or situation and there is not a sharp distinction between the two types of behaviour. Environmental factors influence the way that genetically based behaviour is expressed. Innate or intrinsic behaviour is fixed in the genes of an animal. It is said to be developmentally fixed in that almost all individuals exhibit the same response in spite of environmental variations. A new-born infant, if held ...

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