This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Albedo is typically labeled as the ratio (0 to 1.0) or percentage (0% to 100%) of scattered and reflected to incident sunlight, although the term also refers to longer wavelengths as well. In visible light, albedos of typical materials range from about 4–10% for oceans, water, dark soils to up to 90% for fresh snow. Most land areas have an albedo of 10 to 40%, with the average albedo of the Earth at about 30%. The albedo of a pine forest is around 10%. This is in part due to the dark colour of the pines, and in part due to multiple scattering of sunlight within the trees that lowers the overall reflected light level. Due to light penetration, the ocean's albedo is even lower ...