This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Acid Rain

Acid rain

Acid rain, defined as any type of precipitation with a pH that is about 5.6 or less, is produced through sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that enter the atmosphere and are absorbed by water droplets. This process can increase the soil's acidity as well as affect the chemical balance of lakes and streams. Acid rain causes weathering rates in carbonate rocks and structures to increase, in addition to contributing to high acidity in rivers and streams, as well as damages to trees at high elevation (see Fig. 40). The first reporting of such a phenomenon was by Robert Angus Smith in Manchester, England, in 1852 – Manchester was an important city during the Industrial Revolution. Smith studied this phenomenon for a number of ...

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