A new paradigm for supervising offenders in the community Environmental Corrections is an innovative guide filled with rich insights and strategies for probation and parole officers to effectively integrate offenders back into the community and reduce recidivism. Authors Lacey Schaefer, Francis T. Cullen, and John E. Eck move beyond traditional models for interventions and build directly on the applied focus of environmental criminology theories. Using this approach, the authors answer the question of what officers can do to decrease opportunities for an offender to commit a crime. Readers will learn how to recognize and assess specific criminal opportunities in an offender’s past and gain the tools and strategies they need to design an individualized supervision plan that channels offenders away from these criminogenic situations.
Chapter 6: How the Police Can Help
In the 1980s and beyond, increasing efforts were made to infuse community corrections with “get tough,” deterrence-oriented practices (Cullen, 2002). Probation and parole officers were encouraged to carry guns, talk tough, and engage in “pee ’em and see ’em’” or “tail ’em, nail ’em, and jail ’em”’ supervision (Cullen & Jonson, 2011; Skeem & Manchak, 2008; Stohr & Walsh, 2011). The rejection of rehabilitation in favor of control was typically done with much hubris and in the absence of empirical evidence that punitive practices are effective. As we have seen, this approach proved to be ineffective, failing to blunt offender recidivism and placing public safety at jeopardy.
Ironically, at around the same time, policing in the ...