A new paradigm for supervising offenders in the community Environmental Corrections is an innovative guide filled with rich insights and strategies for probation and parole officers to effectively integrate offenders back into the community and reduce recidivism. Authors Lacey Schaefer, Francis T. Cullen, and John E. Eck move beyond traditional models for interventions and build directly on the applied focus of environmental criminology theories. Using this approach, the authors answer the question of what officers can do to decrease opportunities for an offender to commit a crime. Readers will learn how to recognize and assess specific criminal opportunities in an offender’s past and gain the tools and strategies they need to design an individualized supervision plan that channels offenders away from these criminogenic situations.

Why Offender Supervision Does Not Work

Why Offender Supervision Does Not Work

Over the past four decades, mass incarceration has been the elephant in the room of corrections. During this period, state and federal prison populations increased dramatically, from under 200,000 to over 1.5 million. When jail populations are included, the daily count of incarcerated Americans reaches more than 2.2 million—or 1 in every 108 adults in the nation (Glaze & Herberman, 2013; Pew Center on the States, 2008a). Understandably, a rich body of work has arisen to account for this seemingly intractable willingness to place fellow citizens behind bars (see, e.g., Clear & Frost, 2014; Garland, 2001; Gottschalk, 2006; Pratt, 2009; Tonry, 2004).

Another critical correctional development, however, has been overshadowed by this concentrated focus ...

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