Ending Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery: Freedom’s Journey


Annalisa Enrile

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    This book is dedicated to my family for their unwavering support

    and to the girls of the world, especially those in mine—

    Harley, Anielly, Adri, Mischa, Cassie, Jewel, Nikki, Trinity, Aoife, Penny, Mia, Malia, Koa, Lily, Karessa, Sierra, Alana, Jazlyn, Rhianne, Mahliya, Genevie, Ligaya, Chayce, Roxy, Faith, Sophia, Sarissa, Adele, and Stella

    May you grow to be fierce, brave, curious, and entirely in control of your own destiny.

    About the Author

    ANNALISA ENRILE, PhD, MSW is one of the few Filipina PhDs in social work, having chosen the field as a way to bring to light important social issues in the Filipino-American community, the fastest-growing Asian immigrant population in the United States. She frequently speaks out against sex trafficking, militarization, and exploitative migrant labor. A voice for equity, human rights, and global justice, Annalisa has been recognized as one of the 100 Most Influential Filipinas in the World (FWN Global 100) for her efforts to stop violence against women. She has worked with students, communities, and academic partners to create social change and impact through innovation and collaboration. Annalisa is a Clinical Associate Professor at the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work. She teaches human behavior, management, social innovation, social change, global violence against women, and global social work. Annalisa develops curriculum and creates unique learning experiences and opportunities for students. She leads one of the school’s original global immersion programs to the Philippines and Europe, in the areas of diversity, human rights, gender violence, trafficking, and change. Annalisa also coordinates the school’s Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Residency program. Annalisa is active in community organizations, including serving on several anti-trafficking task forces, and is on the board of the Mariposa Center for Change, an organization that serves women and children of color. She consults with organizations such as the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST), Covenant House, Inc., YWCA Greater Los Angeles, and Search to Involve Pilipino Americans (SIPA). She practices transnational social work, having been an activist and advocate for vulnerable populations around the world since 1993. Annalisa would like to personally thank her family for all their support and her kasamas who taught her what it means to fight for women’s genuine liberation, to stand in your truth and remind her every day just what is at stake if we do not struggle.

    About the Contributors

    Gabrielle Aquino, MSW is a Filipina-American social worker who received her Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Azusa Pacific University and her Master’s degree in Social Work from University of Southern California. She has worked in the educational setting since 2009 because she believes that education plays a pivotal role in the lives of the youth she serves. In 2016, Gabrielle served on a mission’s trip with her church, Fellowship Monrovia, to help a sex trafficking survivor achieve her dream of owning a cake shop. She also empowered at-risk youth by equipping them with skills so they can pursue a higher education, disrupting the common cycle of sex trafficking in Thailand. She is currently working as a school social worker at Monseñor Oscar Romero Charter School in Los Angeles to help promote Positive Behavior Interventions in the school and provide support for students so they can achieve their dreams. Gabrielle would like to thank God, her family, bible study, lifegroup, and sisters who constantly fuel her with the courage and hope to follow her dreams.

    Wilhelmina De Castro, MSW, LCSW is a practicing clinical social worker and an adjunct faculty member of the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work. Wilhelmina received her Bachelor’s degree in Sociology from the University of California Riverside and pursued her Master’s degree in Social Work at the University of Southern California. Wilhelmina has trained and practiced international social work in Southeast Asia and Central and South America. Her domestic and international work has focused on addressing and eradicating forces that contribute to human trafficking and more specifically the trafficking of girls and women. Wilhelmina has partnered with a number of nonprofits and in developing multidimensional programs to address the complex nature of domestic and international trafficking. Operating from an empowerment framework, Wilhelmina’s clinical training also includes evidence-based practices that address complex trauma, domestic violence, substance abuse, depression, and psychosis. Wilhelmina would like to dedicate her work to her family, her partner, and the liberation of all women.

    Charisma De Los Reyes, MSW is a Policy Analyst and Human Trafficking & Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Liaison for Child Welfare Services in San Diego County. She has over 14 years of experience in social services. She is recognized as San Diego’s child welfare Agency’s human trafficking and CSEC subject matter expert providing trainings, policy advisement, consultation and technical assistance to social workers and community partners across the county who encounter victims of human trafficking or children at risk for commercial sexual exploitation. Her child welfare experience also includes investigations, family preservation and engagement, placement and congregate care as well as community child maltreatment prevention projects. Charisma is a community organizer and activist with over 20 year’s experience engaging in social justice and advocacy work around women’s and girls’ issues, both locally and internationally. Her international work includes working with communities impacted by trafficking in Southeast Asian region.

    Melanie G. Ferrer-Vaughn, MSW is originally from the Bay Area, started her career as a social worker in Los Angeles, and is dedicated to combating violence against women. She has worked as a clinician helping children and families heal from sexual abuse, served overseas in the Philippines working with survivors of sex trafficking, managed a domestic violence shelter in WA, and currently works with organizations and schools to build capacity on how to identify and engage youth who are commercially sexually exploited. Melanie reenergizes herself by being with loved ones and having quality conversation around a table of great food, taking on her next DIY project, and tending to her many plants. Melanie would like to say: Annalisa, thank you for allowing me this opportunity and believing in me. Dad, Mom, and Sissy, thank you for allowing me to follow my heart and dreams, even when that meant moving away from home. My best friend and partner, Eric, your unceasing support and encouragement have continuously propelled me forward. Grandma, everything is always for you — still missing you.

    Megan Healy, MSW is a Los Angeles native who received her Bachelor’s degree from Loyola Marymount University and her MSW from the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work. Megan is currently a social worker for the Department of Children and Family Services in Los Angeles where she specifically works with trafficked youth and CSEC. Megan is passionate about international human rights and child welfare. Megan would like to thank her family and friends for all their love and unwavering support.

    Renée Smith-Maddox, PhD is a Clinical Associate Professor and Vice Chair of the Department of Social Change and Innovation at the University of Southern California Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work. She teaches policy advocacy, management, social innovation, and program evaluation courses and designs experiential learning opportunities for the Master of Social Work program and the Virtual Academic Center. As Vice Chair, Dr. Smith-Maddox provides leadership and oversight for curriculum development and instructional design. She is a member of the University’s Diversity and Inclusion Council and Campus Climate Committee. Her professional and research interests include cultivating social change through social labs, teaching diversity as well as issues relating to diversity, inclusion, and equity in higher education. Renee is grateful for our diverse group of contributors who were enthusiastic in sharing ideas from their diverse interests and experiences. “Each person acted as a critical friend in reading and commenting on each other’s work before finalizing—a truly collaborative project.”


    No one tells you when you begin to write a book that it will take more than a village. It will take a microcosm of coauthors, subject matter experts, stakeholders, other researchers, and muses. We were blessed with an outpouring of organizational support but have selected to list individuals. If by chance we have not included your name, know that you are appreciated and valued; your impact was felt. Our deepest gratitude to the valuable hands, hearts, spirits, and minds that touched this endeavor.

    Special Thanks:
    • Liza Largoza Maza
    • Keavy Vicente
    • GreenHouse: The Center of Social Innovation
    • All the courageous women and men who told us their stories
    With Appreciation:
    • Robert Acker
    • Hortensia Amaro, PhD
    • Rafael Angulo, MSW
    • Judith Anxonovich, MS
    • Maria Aranda, PhD
    • Ron Avi Astor, PhD
    • Agnes Bartolome, BSN, RN
    • Congresswoman Karen Bass, MSW
    • Liberato Bautista
    • William Bedroissian, MSW
    • Andrew Benedict-Nelson
    • Karra Bikson, PhD
    • Devon Brooks, PhD
    • Kat Carrido, MBA
    • Dina Cerezo
    • Anna Cho Fenly, MSW
    • Chrissie Deguzman
    • Laylani De La Vega
    • Greg Derelian
    • Tina DeZuniga
    • Monica Ellis, MA
    • Winston Emano
    • Amy Enrile
    • Eliza Enrile
    • Leonilo Enrile
    • Dennis Garcia
    • Katie Feifer
    • Enika Fluellen
    • Dean Marilyn Flynn, PhD
    • Matt Friesch
    • Nancy Giordino
    • Grace Grande
    • Edwin Habacon
    • Daniel Heimpel
    • Johanna Herr
    • Daniel Hester
    • Aldina Hovde, MSW
    • Asha Jayasinghe
    • Maheen Kaleem
    • Charlie Kaplan, PhD
    • Peter Katona
    • James Kelly
    • Jorja Leap, PhD
    • Maitet Ledesma
    • Jeff Leitner
    • Jollene Levid, MSW
    • Carrie Lew, PhD
    • Caroline Lim, PhD
    • Rachel Lloyd
    • Susan Lubi
    • Martha Lyon-Levine, PhD
    • Saskia Maarsen
    • Anthony Maddox, PhD
    • Paul Maiden, PhD
    • Howell Malham
    • Natalie Manzo
    • Doris Mendoza
    • Judith Mirkinson, JD
    • Sam Mistrano, JD
    • Jacqueline Mondros, Ph.D.
    • Obeth Montes
    • Sandra Morgan, PhD
    • Mr. Del Mundo
    • Alissa Nance
    • Julia Ormond
    • Cristina Palabay
    • Nes Parker
    • Tyan Parker-Dominguez, PhD
    • Alexa Pham
    • Olivia Quinto, JD
    • Milady Quito, MA
    • Oliver Ritchie
    • Sasha Rodovich
    • Faith Santilla
    • William Sarni
    • Rhonda Sciortino
    • Dorothy Scott
    • Shah Shelbe, MS
    • Sharon Shelton
    • Grace Shiba
    • Cherrie Short, MSC
    • Rona Smith
    • Wendy Smith, PhD
    • Aquilina Soriano
    • Elizabeth Swart, PhD
    • Lynn Tamayo
    • Wilfred Uytengsu
    • Lalee Vicedo, LCSW
    • Melanie Vicedo
    • Christopher Vicente
    • Vivien Villaverde, MSW
    • Stephanie Wander
    • Faye Washington
    • Sara Watanabe
    • Eugenia Weiss, PhD
    • Doni Whitsett, PhD
    • (Doña) Marleen Wong, PhD
    • Kristen Zaleski, PhD

    A special thank you to those who literally sheltered our writing with rooms, rest houses, and even resorts of our own.

    • Julia Ormond, Paradise Cove
    • Noy DelMundo, Anilao, Batangas
    • The Farm at San Benito
    SAGE would like to thank the following reviewers:
    • Roksana Alavi

      University of Oklahoma

    • Jane H. Bayes

      California State University, Northridge

    • Julie V. Brown

      University of North Carolina at Greensboro

    • N. Chubbock

      Nottingham Trent University

    • Maria A. Conn

      Chestnut Hill College

    • Jan Bourne-Day

      Manchester Metropolitan University Cheshire

    • Michelle Dietert

      Texas A & M University – Central Texas

    • Nancy Janus

      Eckerd College

    • Suman Kakar

      Florida International University

    • Marleen Milner

      Southeastern University

    • Tatyana Nestorova

      Ohio State University

    • David Porteous

      Middlesex University

    • Tazreena Sajjad

      American University

    • Nadia Shapkina

      Kansas State University

    • Kali Wright-Smith

      Westminster College

    • Simon T. Sneddon

      University of Northampton

    • Laura L. Starzynski

      Wayne State University

    • Wendy Stickle

      University of Maryland

    • Nelseta Walters-Jones

      University of Maryland Eastern Shore

    • Ralph Weisheit

      Illinois State University

    • Manuel F. Zamora

      Angelo State University

    Preface: A Different Kind of Textbook

    I was 19 years old when I first met survivors of trafficking. I was attending a women’s conference in Santa Barbara, California, convened by GABRIELA Philippines and Gabriela Network. It was 1995 and the conference was held in preparation for what would become a landmark event in the international women’s movement—the UN’s Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. In this sleepy, oceanside college town, I met factory workers from Saipan who had their lives threatened for speaking out about what was happening in export processing zones, children who were sold for sex and labor in the Philippines, and mail-order brides who had been sex trafficked and held against their will throughout Canada. This event was the catalyst to what would become my life’s work in the women’s movement and in my professional career.

    I have now spent over 20 years in the field of human trafficking and modern day slavery. I’ve worked in all aspects of it—from prevention to protection; rescue to healing; and from activism to academia. When the public began being more aware of this issue, I was often told that I should write a book. I always demurred, not feeling that I was a traditional academic (whatever that means) and opting to focus my expression to my work in the field. And, then I began to notice the deluge of literature that was being produced—some of it spot on and some of them pure works of fiction. I also started teaching a course on global violence against women and I realized that despite the millions of pages that had been written, there was nothing that quite addressed the continuum of services that providers are responsible for. I knew that I had the background to draw from, but I still was hesitant to undertake such a daunting task. Then, in another moment of serendipity, I found myself at yet another conference where the recurring theme was the lack of knowledge of best practices around human trafficking and modern-day slavery. There was also a huge shift happening in the anti-trafficking movement from a human rights frameworks to a reliance on security and law enforcement. Finally, there was an explosion in the glamorizing of pimp culture, commodification of women’s bodies, the cheapening of human lives, and the rise of migrant movement either through the push-pull of labor or as the result of conflict or natural disaster. I could keep going on and on, but the point is very few people were talking about these things. It felt like it was time to put my thoughts, experiences, and perspective onto paper.

    I decided if I was going to write this book, it could not just be about human trafficking and modern-day slavery as an academic subject: I wanted to bring to life the issue’s complex relationship to the helping profession and other disciplines such as business, policy, technology, and even religion. I wanted to bring to the forefront the voices of survivors and allies. I wanted this to be not only a handbook of practical information but also a call to action to abolish this system all together. I wanted to make sure that the process of writing the book honored the transnational women’s movement and began to redefine the way we think about the creation of scholarship. I wanted a lot of things.

    The first step was redefining our notions of scholarship. Along the way, I have met some incredible women who have been engaged in the field and whose commitment and passion have fueled genuine change. How could the traditional paradigm of research and the scientific method express their real-world and hands-on history as well as have them inform this book the way they have informed the field? In academia, we value the author of the words and the tester of hypothesis and theory. We don’t give credit to the convener of thoughts, the gatherer of stories, the community mentors, or the on-the-spot responders. There is no byline for those activities to share. This book aims to change that. I have brought together a group of Anti-Trafficking Warriors, gladiators in the fight to stop trafficking. Each of these women have made significant contributions in the realm of human rights and trafficking. Not all of them are researchers or writers, but each one has contributed to the formation of the book whether this was through the sharing of their insights, creating dialogues in the community to test our ideas, relationships with survivors, growing of networks of providers and other stakeholders . . . as you can see, more than the list of what we wanted to do, the list of the talents that we brought together in the project was endless. I wanted to value the process of cocreation. So the book became a process of we. Each chapter begins with a personal vignette of one of our warriors and an instance of her work that also addresses the theme or content of the chapter. We wanted readers to be able to get a view from the frontlines. It’s been an honor to bring all our collective knowledge together.

    Once we assembled our team of anti-trafficking warriors, we addressed the issue of how we would talk about human trafficking and modern-day slavery. From the beginning, just as we come from diverse backgrounds of circumstance and experience, we knew that we had to approach the issue through a diversity of fields and so as much as possible we have tried to do just that—examination and analysis from a multidisciplinary perspective. In line with this type of intersectional thinking, we decided that we would attempt to provide a global perspective to the book. There are more things about the world that are the same than different, but it is important to note the cultural, and historical nuances that each country specifically faces. Where we have been able to, we have included international discussions and examples. It is important to note that we don’t claim to give a comprehensive global scope, nor do any of the countries we mention serve as templates for universalizing phenomena, but we did feel it was imperative to provide a real view of what is occurring at the regional level and within individual countries.

    Each chapter is constructed as a practical guide and not just a conceptual discourse that waxes on and on about the topic. Other people could talk about trafficking. We want readers to “do” and take action. Often, books on trafficking straddle the edge of actual action planning. We want people to walk away with actual methodologies they can put into practice, or at least think about in terms of how to prevent, intervene, and advocate for. To accomplish this, each chapter ends with a “call to action,” or a challenge of how to continue to build the anti-trafficking and abolitionist movements.

    Finally, we wanted to put the voices of the survivors and their closest allies at the forefront of the book. This has been the most gratifying, humbling, and inspiring experience we’ve ever had. Again, we didn’t want to just narrowly define survivor’s participation as sharing of their stories. We also turned to groups of survivors for every chapter we wrote to make sure that our words were relevant and had impact. We met with key informants as we got stuck in the process not knowing if we were going in the right direction, or just regurgitating old ideas. We have included the paths survivors have gone through in our case vignettes and examples. All cases and examples presented here are based on our interactions and communication with survivors and at times their allies (as in the case of the discussion of Women’s Human Rights’ Defenders). And, of course, we listened to what they dreamed of and envisioned when we asked what the end of human trafficking and modern-day slavery would look like.

    Human trafficking and modern-day slavery is gaining momentum in our social consciousness. More and more people are beginning to understand the scope and scale of this horrific phenomenon. Governments are now engaged and companies working to create immediate solutions. But, this hasn’t always been the case. This book was written to honor the process of what has gotten us to this point and hopefully provide steps to moving forward.

  • Glossary

    Section 1


    the term used to commonly refer to a person born of a U.S. military father and an Asian mother (particularly, this term colloquially refers to the phenomenon of the Asian women who are prostituted). Often this person is the subject of discrimination based on their parentage.


    the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation was created in 19 89. Twenty-one countries make up this forum. The United States is one of the members of the economic community.


    system of dividing society into hereditary classes. Some groups inherit specific privileges, while others experience deprivations all because of parentage.

    Chattel Slavery

    often referred to as “traditional slavery” because of the person being owned as personal property.


    replacing of regular workers with temporary workers who receive lower wages with no or lesser benefits.


    reduction or elimination of government power in a particular industry in favor of privatization. Deregulation is usually enacted to create more competition within the industry.


    the European Union, formerly known as the European Economic Community, was begun in the aftermath of World War II, but formalized into the organization in 1993. 28 countries make up this union. The EU abolished formal “borders” between countries, allowing citizens to travel throughout the participating countries to access better jobs and living conditions. In 2016, the United Kingdom exited from the EU, opting to be independent, which caused economic instability in the region.

    Export Processing Zone

    areas within developing countries that offer incentives and a barrier-free environment to promote economic growth by attracting foreign investment for export-oriented production.


    Gross Domestic Product is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period.


    the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets.

    Human Rights

    legal, ethical, or social principles sometimes expressed as policies or legislation that describe and/or protect rights that are understood to be inalienable, fundamental, and inherent to all human beings regardless of their status. Human rights are considered to be universal invariants such as the right to life, health and well-being, food, and shelter. Further, rights such as education, freedom from enslavement, and political freedom are also considered by many (though not all) to be human rights.


    according to the website, the International Monetary Fund is an organization of 189 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.

    Labor Migration

    the movement of people for the purpose of employment, often in the informal sector or sectors vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.


    process of relaxing government restrictions. These relaxations of policies can be in social, political, or economic forums.

    Mail-Order Brides

    a woman brought from another country to be married, usually in return for a payment to a company that makes such arrangements.


    the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence.

    Military-Industrial Complex

    network of individuals and institutions involved in the production of weapons and military technologies. The military-industrial complex in a country typically attempts to marshal political support for continued or increased military spending by the national government.

    Modern-Day Slavery

    refers to the current phenomena of slavery after the 20th century.

    Multinational Corporation

    a company that is operating in several different countries, but is usually manages in one “home” country. The corporation usually makes a large amount of its profits from business in various outside countries.


    North American Free Trade Agreement refers to the trade agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada signed on January 1, 1994.


    no longer having qualities that would define a human being.


    system of government, society, and culture where men hold all power and decision making (and women are largely excluded). The ideology that men inherently should hold all the power. In patriarchal cultures, familial lines are traced through the male line.

    Price Elasticity of Demand

    the measure of the change in demand of a product because of the change in price.

    Push and Pull factors

    socioeconomic, political, cultural, or other forces that force people to migrate to a new location. Push factors are those that drive people to leave their homelands (usually conflict, poverty, natural disaster, etc.). Pull factors are those that attract people to a new location (such as job opportunities, education, quality of living).


    return on investment is a ratio designed to understand the profitability of a commodity.

    Social determinants

    conditions and contexts into which people live, such as where they are born, grow, live, health, class, culture, religion. Social determinants may shape situations and affect distribution or access to resources.

    Structural Adjustment Loan

    type of loan provided to developing countries. This loan often creates dependency of developing nations on developed nations and has been widely criticized as creating more poverty instead of alleviating poverty.

    Structural Adjustment Program

    loans provided by the IMF and the World Bank to countries and regions that are experiencing economic crisis.

    Supply and Demand

    the amount of a commodity, product, or service available and the desire of buyers for it, considered as factors regulating its price.

    Supply Chain

    a network between a company and its suppliers to produce and distribute a specific product, and the supply chain represents the steps it takes to get the product or service to the customer.

    TIP Report

    The Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report is the U.S. Government’s principal diplomatic tool to engage foreign governments on human trafficking.

    Trafficking (ensure understanding of no ”grab and go” or moving locations)—

    the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

    Transnational (Corporations)—

    operating in or involving more than one country. Unlike other companies that operate in multiple countries, a transnational corporation does not identify any one country as its home base.

    Transnational Social Movements

    a group of organizations or single organization in multiple countries that are united in fighting for a similar goal or cause. Transnational social movements are characterized by mobilization of people in a sustained manner for the promotion of social and political change objectives. However, transnational social movements are distinctive in that either or both their activities and their objectives cross national boundaries. Transnational social movements include the work of a subcategory of international nongovernmental organizations—those concerned with political and social transformation, known as “transnational social movement organizations.” They also include the work of broader coalitions of transnational social movement organizations, as well as more loosely arranged networks of people promoting political and social transformations beyond the confines of individual states. The range of objectives promoted by transnational social movements is diverse, including democracy, environmentalism, feminism, human rights, labor standards, peace, and religious goals, among others. Academic literature on the topic sheds light on the ways in which social movements organize transnationally, disseminate ideas across borders, shape understandings of global issues, and wield influence in intergovernmental and transnational arenas. Each of these aspects is covered in this bibliography, which focuses specifically on the transnational dimension, since domestic social movements are covered in other Oxford Bibliographies articles. While much of the literature on transnational social movements consists of single case analyses, this bibliography pays particular attention to works with wider significance, and to the contrasting perspectives on each of these aspects.

    World Bank

    international financing group that works to promote developing nations. The organization offers loans to developing countries to promote the goal of ending extreme poverty.

    Section 2


    Antecedent behavior consequence is a behavioral analysis measuring tool commonly found in the CBT therapy model. ABC measures the events that happen before a behavior and the consequences that follow in an effort to identify behavioral patterns.

    Best Practice

    commercial or professional procedures that are accepted or prescribed as being correct or most effective.

    Biopsychosocial Assessment

    The biopsychosocial assessment approach systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors and their complex interactions in understanding health, illness, and health-care delivery.

    Case Management

    collaborative process of assessment, planning, facilitation, care coordination, evaluation, and advocacy for options and services to meet an individual’s and family’s comprehensive health needs through communication and available resources to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes.


    Cognitive behavioral therapy is a psychosocial intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice for treating mental disorders.

    Collective Impact

    framework to tackle deeply entrenched and complex social problems. It is an innovative and structured approach to making collaboration work across government, business, philanthropy, nonprofit organizations, and citizens to achieve significant and lasting social change.

    Compassion Fatigue

    The emotional residue or strain of exposure to working with those suffering from the consequences of traumatic events. Often referred to as secondary trauma.


    Commercial sexual exploitation of children is defined as criminal practices that demean, degrade, and threaten the physical and psychosocial integrity of children. There are three primary forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children: prostitution, pornography, and trafficking for sexual purposes.

    Cultural Competency

    awareness, understanding, and reacting to a variety of cultural variances. It is important in a client/patient relationship.

    Cultural Humility

    encourages an individual to recognize their biases when working with those from other cultures and backgrounds. It acknowledges that balance of power between individuals to more effectively interact and engage with other cultures and communities.

    Cultural Sensitivity

    awareness that cultural differences and similarities between people exist without assigning them a value—positive or negative, better or worse, right or wrong.


    Domestic sex trafficking (sometimes referred to as CSEC—commercial sexual exploitation of children)


    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is an evidence-based therapy commonly utilized for PTSD. The therapy utilizes various sensory inputs, such as side-to-side eye movements or rapidly flashing lights.

    Empowerment Model

    theory of human behavior based on the ideology that people have inherent strengths and should build on those strengths. The empowerment model is concerned with awareness raising, building individual and community capacity, and the ability to increase self-efficacy and mastery to create change.

    Evidence-Based Practices

    is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences.

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    This five-stage model can be divided into basic and psychological needs, which ensure survival (e.g., physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (self-actualization). This model has been utilized by traffickers to best manipulate their victims.


    maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of one’s thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment.


    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. The disorder can manifest via disrupting thoughts, vivid dreams, feelings, or physical reactions. These symptoms will last for more than a month after the traumatic event.


    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


    activities that an individual engages in to relax or attain emotional well-being, such as exercise, meditating, or other enjoyable activities. This is especially important within the context of trauma or secondary trauma.

    Strengths Based/Strengths Perspective

    social work practice theory that emphasizes people’s self-determination and strengths. It is a philosophy and a way of viewing clients as resourceful and resilient in the face of adversity.


    a person who continues to function or prosper, in spite of opposition, danger, trauma, hardship, or setbacks.


    is an evidence-based treatment for children and adolescents impacted by trauma and their parents or caregivers. Research shows that TF–CBT successfully resolves a broad array of emotional and behavioral difficulties associated with single, multiple, and complex trauma experiences.


    a person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or other event or action.

    Section 3


    a formal decision, law, or the like, by a legislature, ruler, court, or other authority; decree or edict; statute; judgment, resolve, or award.


    an official inspection of an individual’s or organization’s accounts, typically by an independent body.


    a draft of a law presented to a legislature for consideration.


    the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, assessment, or audit.

    H1B Visa

    a nonimmigrant visa that allows U.S. companies to employ foreign workers in specialty occupations that require theoretical or technical expertise in specialized fields such as in architecture, engineering, mathematics, science, and medicine.

    H2B Visa

    is a temporary work visa for foreign workers with a job offer for seasonal, nonagricultural work in the United States.


    a rule made by the government of a town, state, country, and so forth.

    Multisystem Collaboration

    group of organizations that are committed to meeting the same goal. Often collaborations are formed between law enforcement, child welfare, and community-based organizations to better serve and meet the needs of the population.

    Palermo Protocol

    Three protocols that were adopted by the United Nations to supplement the 2000 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Convention). They are as follows: the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air; and the Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components, and Ammunition. The convention marks great strides toward fighting transnational crime and identifies those member states in the United Nations who acknowledge the gravity of such crimes.


    a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual.


    act of acquiring or buying goods, services, or works from an external source, often via a tendering or bid process.

    Safe Harbor Laws

    Safe harbor laws were developed by states to address inconsistencies with how children who are exploited for commercial sex are treated. Safe harbor laws are intended to address the inconsistent treatment of children and ensure that these victims are provided with services.


    a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule.

    Supply Chain Transparency

    The extent to which a company has the information on their suppliers and sourcing locations available and understandable to the public.

    T Visa

    a visa for those who are or have been victims of human trafficking, which protects victims of human trafficking and allows victims to remain in the United States to assist in an investigation or prosecution of human trafficking.


    The TVPA, and its reauthorizations in 2003, 2005, and 2008, define a human trafficking victim as a person induced to perform labor or a commercial sex act through force, fraud, or coercion.

    U Visa

    is a nonimmigrant visa, which is set aside for victims of crimes (and their immediate family members) who have suffered substantial mental or physical abuse and are willing to assist law enforcement and government officials in the investigation or prosecution of the criminal activity.


    The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime is a United Nations–sponsored multilateral treaty against transnational organized crime. The Convention was adopted by a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly on 15 November 2000.


    the establishment by empirical means of the validity of a proposition.

    Section 4


    someone engaged in the movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal in action.


    the policy or action of using vigorous campaigning to bring about political or social change.


    public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy.


    action or intervention, especially such as to produce a particular effect.

    Awareness Raising

    is a form of activism, popularized by U.S. feminists in the late 1960s. It often takes the form of a group of people attempting to focus the attention of a wider group of people on some cause or condition.


    the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a member of a country.


    disturbance or problems that interrupt an event, activity, or process.


    community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

    Faith-Based Organizations

    a group of individuals united on the basis of religious or spiritual beliefs. Often, faith-based organizations work to promote their religious calls to action through various works of service and social justice movements.


    theories, concepts, and practices that share common goals of establishing, protecting, and enforcing the political, personal, and social equality and rights of women in society. Feminism is not unidimensional and as such, there are varying definitions and types of feminisms.


    a new method, idea, product, or intervention that causes impact and disruption to social causes.


    the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.


    care provided to improve a situation. Often utilized by service providers and clinicians in order to better the lives of their clients.


    is a source of financial services for entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services. This has become popular in developing nations as a way to bring cash flow into building markets and businesses.


    is a not-for-profit organization that is independent from states and international governmental organizations


    the action of stopping something from happening or arising.


    early approximation, sample, or model created to test a concept, process, or innovation.

    Safe Space

    A place where anyone can relax and be fully self-expressed, without fear of being made to feel uncomfortable, unwelcome, or challenged.

    Sex Tourism

    the organization of vacations with the purpose of taking advantage of the lack of restrictions imposed on prostitution and other sexual activities by some foreign countries.

    Social Enterprise

    an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being.


    used to refer to some current levels of population diversity that are significantly higher than before, coined by sociologist Steven Vertovec in 2007.

    Underground Railroad

    a network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century enslaved people of African descent in the United States in efforts to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.


    The United Nations Development Fund for Women. Since 1976, UNIFEM has been assisting innovative programs and implementing strategies that promote women’s human rights, political participation, and economic security.

    Wicked Problem

    a circumstance or situation that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize.


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