Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years: A Practical Guide

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Collette Drifte

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    Dedication

    For Reinhard, with my love

    Key for Icons

    Chapter Objectives
    Go to CD
    Activity
    Photocopiable
    Further Reading
    Case Study
    Summary

    CD-ROM Contents

    All CD-Rom content for this title is included at the end of this book.

    Acknowledgements

    My thanks go firstly to the children and practitioners who have taught me so much over the years – all very special people.

    Thanks, too, go to my editor and friend, Jude Bowen, for her efficient professionalism and unfailing support, which was especially welcome at those times when I wondered whether I could manage.

    And last but not least, thanks to Reinhard, especially for doing ‘dog duty’ on the days when I needed to do nothing but write!

    About the Author

    Collette Drifte is a freelance author and trainer, with 22 years' experience in mainstream and special education. She has a B. Phil. Ed and M. Ed, both in the field of special educational needs. A former deputy head teacher and now living in Northumberland, she has written numerous articles and books in the fields of early years special needs and early years literacy. She speaks regularly at national exhibitions, and leads courses, workshops and seminars across the country.

    How to Use This Book

    Since the first edition of this book was published, the early years sector has undergone, and indeed is continuing to undergo, major changes in both practice and policy Further educational and social welfare legislation has been put in place, with, for example, the updated Disability Discrimination Act becoming fully operational. The SureStart programme has been implemented and is going from strength to strength. Every Child Matters has been published and is at the core of everything practitioners are doing for the children in their care. The career structure and professional development of early years practitioners are being overhauled with, among other things, the introduction of levels of qualification and the availability of the Early Years Professional Status (EYPS). And, at the time of writing, the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), together with the EYFS Profile, are only months away from implementation.

    Where once educational and social practice guidelines and legislation covered only specific areas of provision, now playgroups, registered child-minding networks, pre-school groups, private and non-maintained nurseries and private early years provision are all fully included in government plans and policies. The policy of inclusion has become the norm among early years providers, but there appears to be one area of difficulty where practitioners really feel they need training, information and support, and this is in working with those children whose behaviour causes concern because it is inappropriate or unacceptable. If you are trying to support a child with persistently difficult behaviour, you may often face a situation where you have to make a quick decision about the best way of dealing with what is happening and you may find this challenging. Hopefully Encouraging Positive Behaviour will go some way to addressing concerns you may have.

    The ever-increasing amount of pressure on practitioners, combined with all the other things going on in the setting, make it understandable that they may feel deskilled and unsure of what they are supposed to do. It is easy for them to become focused on the negative aspects of the child's behaviour, seeing nothing redeeming in either the child or the situation, and to conclude that there's no solution.

    There is a wide range of books and articles on the subject of inappropriate or difficult behaviour, from textbooks giving a full theoretical background of the psychology of the behaviour a child may present, to one-off articles giving some handy hints about what a practitioner could try. You need the time to find these, read them and then decide what would be best for you, and time is a commodity that practitioners do not in have large amounts.

    Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years: A Practical Guide has been written in response to this situation. Many books and articles are written with eye-catching titles such as Managing Challenging Behaviour or Coping with Difficult Behaviour, which tempt the practitioner to think there's a quick fix to a problem that may be dominating their working day. This book doesn't pretend to do that, because no two children are alike and there's no such thing as a quick-fix solution, but it does aim to help the practitioner to stand back from their situation, rethink their own philosophies and practices, review what's going on in the setting and then do something about any element that may need to be changed.

    The book speaks of ‘inappropriate behaviour’, ‘unacceptable behaviour’ or ‘positive behaviour’, and never refers to ‘a problem child’ or ‘a difficult child’. This is because it isn't the child we're hoping to change, but their behaviour, and it's very important to keep this aim as the focus of any intervention that is planned. A child's behaviour is influenced by, and indeed may be caused by, many factors such as their home environment, their personal relationships, their past experiences, their personality, their early years setting and its environment, their interaction with the adults in the setting, the practitioners' own experiences, attitudes and behaviour, and a myriad other things that come into play. It's our task as the child's practitioner to identify what factors are influencing the child's behaviour, and to take what steps we can to adjust or adapt these to provide opportunities for the child to develop positive behaviour.

    The first chapter of this book explores the concept of inclusion and how it has evolved historically, legally and in practice, with the gradual move from ‘integration’ to ‘inclusion’. It looks in general terms at making sure exclusion does not occur in the early years setting in relation to children with behavioural difficulties, and it also explores some suggestions to help professionals develop inclusive practices in the setting's activities.

    Chapter 2 asks practitioners some hard-hitting questions about their perceptions of specific needs in general, and behavioural difficulties in particular. It shows how practitioners may need to ‘peel back’ all their beliefs, re-examine their own behaviour and possibly change their attitudes and working practices. It also explores the reasons why and how an early years setting can write a positive behaviour policy, with discussion of and suggestions for the practicalities involved in planning, writing and publishing the policy.

    Chapter 3 examines some general principles behind the planning, writing and reviewing of Individual Education Plans (IEPs) and Play Plans. It then explores the practicalities involved in writing and reviewing Individual Education Plans specifically for children with behavioural difficulties, including ways of identifying and recording inappropriate behaviour to provide a planning resource. Working with both the child and their family is an important part of this chapter.

    The final chapter could be called the ‘down to brass tacks’ chapter since it addresses the daily realities involved in trying both to reduce undesired and inappropriate behaviour, and to encourage positive behaviour. It looks at the theory behind the psychology-based ABC approach to working with children who have behavioural difficulties and at actually putting the ABC approach into practice, with practical suggestions for avoiding, managing and reducing inappropriate behaviour, and for encouraging desired behaviour.

    Throughout the book there are useful photocopiables that can be used as they stand or adapted for your specific setting. There is also a sample positive behaviour policy that practitioners may like to use as a framework for their own, again to be adapted if required to better suit a particular setting or to use as it stands. All the forms, policies and samples are on the accompanying CD-ROM for those readers who prefer that medium. There are also useful sample letters to parents that can be used when working together to support a child, and blank referral letters to outside agents. You can use them as part of your own best-practice portfolio, to stimulate discussion with your colleagues as the basis of in-house professional development sessions, or as part of your overall, wider-ranging policy and practice planning.

    There are case studies running through the book to highlight specific points where appropriate, all of which feature real children in real situations. To protect the children's identities, their names have been changed. All of the case studies appear in a designated section on the CD-ROM. Occasionally I use a non-existent child called Buster to highlight a discussion point in the text. While the child doesn't exist, Buster does – he's a persona doll I have used successfully with children who were experiencing behavioural difficulties – and I decided to use his name rather than strive for political correctness by using a variety of names, and possibly still end up unintentionally offending somebody. There is a Further Reading list for those practitioners who would like more information, suggestions and support about behavioural difficulties. Some of the further reading references appear at the end of the chapter to which they are most relevant, but they are all listed at the end of the book as well. Most of the books recommended have been chosen because they are ‘reader-friendly’ and also very practical. I have included a few of the more theoretical texts for those practitioners who wish to study the academic aspects of the subject, such as research findings, psychological theory or sociology, but the majority of the titles are not of this genre. Those practitioners following courses of further study should also refer to their own institution's reading list or be guided by their tutor.

    Finally a few words about who could use this book in terms of British geography. Some of the issues discussed in this book refer to the situation in England, particularly with regard to recent legislation and initiatives. The devolved administrations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are implementing their own strategies, with their own relevant legislation in place to support these. However, because the fundamentals of best practice are enshrined in all the initiatives, this book is also relevant to and appropriate for practitioners in the administrative areas outside England. If you are working in Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland, therefore, the book will be just as useful and relevant to your working practices.

    The appendix on the CD-ROM cites the Standards that are to be met for the award of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS). These are clearly closely linked to best practice when it comes to supporting a child with behaviour problems, and achievement of each and every one of the Standards should be the goal of all practitioners, whether or not they register to be officially awarded EYPS.

    Again, this section is highly relevant to practitioners wherever they are (Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, as well as England) since the Standards encompass everything that a good early years professional should be doing automatically, and they represent sound goals to aim for in a practitioner's daily working practices.

    Just for Fun

    The education field, like many other professional areas, is full of acronyms that can leave us with eyes rolling around in our heads. You might like to try completing the crossword (in Appendix 2) without cheating, and see how many acronyms connected with early years education or special educational needs you know. If you're really stuck, you can check in the Glossary or even look at the solution – both are at the end of the book. Good luck!

  • Appendix 1: EYPS Standards

    The award of the Early Years Professional Status requires a practitioner to demonstrate best practice in a total of 39 Standards, organised into six areas:

    • knowledge and understanding
    • effective practice
    • relationships with children
    • communicating and working in partnership with families and carers
    • teamwork and collaboration
    • professional development.

    Below are the 39 Standards, and you will see all of them clearly have a direct relevance to practitioners when supporting children with behaviour problems.

    Knowledge and Understanding
    • The principles and content of the Early Years Foundation Stage and how to put them into practice.
    • The individual and diverse ways in which children develop and learn from birth to the end of the Foundation Stage and thereafter.
    • How children's well-being, development, learning and behaviour can be affected by a range of influences and transitions from inside and outside the setting.
    • The main provisions of national and local statutory and non-statutory frameworks within which children's services work and their implications for early years settings.
    • The current legal requirements, national policies and guidance on health and safety, safeguarding the well-being of children and their implications for early years settings.
    • The contribution that other professionals within the setting and beyond can make to children's physical and emotional well-being, development and learning.
    Effective Practice
    • Have high expectations of all children and commitment to ensuring they can achieve their full potential.
    • Establish and sustain a safe, welcoming, purposeful, stimulating and encouraging environment where children feel confident and secure and are able to develop and learn.
    • Provide balanced and flexible daily and weekly routines that meet children's needs and enable them to develop and learn.
    • Use close, informed observation and other strategies to monitor children's activity, development and progress systematically and carefully, and use this information to inform, plan and improve practice and provision.
    • Plan and provide safe and appropriate child-led and adult-initiated experiences, experiences and play opportunities in indoor, outdoor and out-of-setting contexts, which enable the children to develop and learn.
    • Select, prepare and use a range of resources suitable for children's ages, interests and abilities, taking account of diversity and promoting equality and inclusion.
    • Make effective personalised provision for the children they work with.
    • Respond appropriately to children, informed by how children develop and learn and a clear understanding of possible next steps in their development and learning.
    • Support the development of children's language and communication skills.
    • Engage in sustained shared thinking with children.
    • Promote positive behaviour, self-control and independence through using effective behaviour management strategies and developing children's social, emotional and behavioural skills.
    • Promote children's rights, equality, inclusion and anti-discriminatory practice in all areas of their practice.
    • Establish a safe environment and employ practices that promote children's health, safety and physical, emotional and mental well-being.
    • Recognise when a child is in danger or at risk of harm and know how to act to protect them.
    • Assess, record and report on progress in children's development and learning and use this as a basis for differentiating provision.
    • Give constructive and sensitive feedback to help children understand what they have achieved and think about what they need to do next and, when appropriate, encourage children to think about, evaluate and improve on their own performance.
    • Identify and support those children whose development, progress or well-being are affected by changes or difficulties in their personal circumstances and know when to refer them to colleagues for specialist support.
    • Be accountable for the delivery of high-quality provision.
    Relationships with Children
    • Establish fair, respectful, trusting, supportive and constructive relationships with children.
    • Communicate sensitively and effectively with children from birth to the end of the Foundation Stage.
    • Listen to children, pay attention to what they say and value and respect their views.
    • Demonstrate the positive values, attitudes and behaviour they expect from the children.
    Communicating and Working in Partnership with Families and Carers
    • Recognise and respect the influential and enduring contribution that families and parents/carers can make to children's development, well-being and learning.
    • Establish fair, respectful, trusting and constructive relationships with families and parents/carers, and communicate sensitively and effectively with them.
    • Work in partnership with families and parents/carers, at home and in the setting, to nurture children, to help them develop and to improve outcomes for them.
    • Provide formal and informal opportunities through which information about children's well-being, development and learning can be shared between the setting and the families and parents/carers.
    Teamwork and Collaboration
    • Establish and sustain a culture of collaborative and cooperative working between colleagues.
    • Ensure that colleagues working with them understand their role and are involved appropriately in helping children to meet planned objectives.
    • Influence and shape the policies and practices of the setting and share in collective responsibility for their implementation.
    • Contribute to the work of a multi-professional team and, where appropriate, coordinate and implement agreed programmes and interventions on a day-to-day basis.
    Professional Development
    • Develop and use skills in literacy, numeracy and information and communication technology to support their work with children and wider professional activities.
    • Reflect on and evaluate the impact of practice, modifying approaches where necessary, and take responsibility for identifying and meeting their professional development needs.
    • Take a creative and constructively critical approach towards innovation, and adapt practice if benefits and improvements are identified.

    Appendix 2: Acronym Crossword Puzzle

    For solution see Appendix 3.

    Appendix 3: Answers to Quizzes

    Answers to ‘Can You Tell Which is Which – The Medical or the Social Model?’ (Page 5)
    • Jason: the medical model. Jenny's strategy of making him leave the play area until he learns to play properly reflects her perception that Jason is a ‘naughty boy’ and somehow deprivation of the toys will help him to learn appropriate play and social skills. She needs to plan a positive and practical step-by-step programme that will help Jason to develop these skills.
    • Annan: the social model. His practitioners have recognised that the sessions in the Large Hall cause problems and have taken steps to make sure Annan can join in and enjoy the activities for as long as he is able. The strategy of using the trainee to support him helps to reduce his stress and anxiety and therefore the inappropriate behaviour.
    • Ned: the medical model. The practitioners are totally focused on the age-related Foundation Stage targets and if Ned fails to achieve some of them, he has to work below his age-related level until he does. It would be more appropriate to recognise and celebrate each of Ned's skills at his level of achievement and encourage him to develop them still further, even if this means working at different levels in the different areas of the curriculum.
    • Minnie: the medical model. Lily feels that the problem is within Minnie and so is failing Minnie by depriving her of the opportunity to join in the discussions. Minnie is also deprived of the chance to learn speaking and listening skills. An uninterrupted session seems to be more of a priority than helping Minnie to develop.
    • Hugh: the social model. Hugh's practitioners recognise that the activity causes him problems and they devise a strategy that will enable him to join in the outings with support.
    Answers to Inclusive Practice Quiz Time (Page 6)
    • Fergus: this is not inclusion. The setting needs to show both the parents and the other children that there is nothing to fear from Fergus's difficulties. The practitioners need to encourage an ethos of welcoming all children, regardless of their difficulties, and to arrange the activities to enable Fergus to take part without provoking bouts of inappropriate behaviour. They need to establish a consistent approach to Fergus's behaviour, letting him know exactly what is and is not tolerated within the setting. There should be close liaison with Fergus's parents and the relevant medical professionals to enable effective planning. There may be a connection between Fergus's medication, in terms of the actual drug and/or the dosage, and his behaviour. This should be explored by the medical professionals and any changes in regime should be shared with the setting's staff.
    • Mary-Clare: this is inclusion. Mary-Clare's practitioners have realised there's a pattern to her inappropriate behaviour – in the late morning, probably because she's hungry after an early breakfast. By giving Mary-Clare a snack mid-morning (i.e. differentiating), the practitioners have ensured that she's feeling comfortable physically and is therefore able to join in happily for the rest of the morning.
    • Beth: this is not inclusion. Beth is being deprived of an activity that is on offer to the other children, and also of the chance to develop her speaking, listening, turn-taking and social skills. Because Beth behaves like this only occasionally, the practitioners should try to discover why this is so. There may be clashes of personality, perhaps with the adult working with the group or with another child; the activity on offer may be inappropriate for Beth, being either too difficult or too easy; maybe the session is held at a difficult time of the day for Beth. Careful observation can help here, since a pattern may emerge that the practitioners can use when addressing the problem.
    • Lee Wei: this is inclusion. The practitioners realise that Lee Wei has difficulty in managing the cutlery. By discussing the situation with Mum and allowing him to use chopsticks, they ensure that Lee Wei is included in lunch time without the previous stresses. Also, by having the Chinese cooking sessions in the setting, the practitioners enable Lee Wei to share something of his cultural background with his peers, who clearly also benefit from this experience.
    Answers to Observation Quiz Time (Page 68)
    • Yes. The statement tells us exactly what Soozie did.
    • Yes. We know what Brandon's behaviour consisted of from the statement.
    • Mostly no. We have no idea what Gita was doing. ‘Misbehaving’ tells us nothing beyond the notion that the observer disapproved of Gita's behaviour. There is some factual information since we know when she was behaving inappropriately but we don't know what she did.
    • Yes. Pasqual's actions are described factually.
    • Mostly no. We have the factual information that tells us where and for how long the inappropriate behaviour took place, but the term ‘disrupted’ doesn't give us any indication of what Owen was doing.
    • No. ‘Aggressive’ is a subjective word in this context and doesn't tell us what exactly Walter was doing to Mina. Neither do we know what Mina's reaction was, since ‘very upset’ is a vague description which gives little useful information.
    Acronym Crossword Puzzle Solution

    Glossary of Some Educational Acronyms

    • ADD Attention Deficit Disorder
    • ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    • BSS Behaviour Support Service
    • CPS Child Psychology Service
    • DCSF Department for Children, Schools and Families
    • DfES Department for Education and Skills
    • DES Department of Education and Science
    • DOE Director of Education
    • EAL English as an Additional Language
    • EBD Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
    • EP Educational Psychologist (may also be known as Ed Psych)
    • EPS Educational Psychology Service
    • EYBSS Early Years Behaviour Support Service
    • EYFS Early Years Foundation Stage
    • EYSSS Early Years Sensory Support Service
    • EYDCP Early Years Development and Childcare Partnership
    • EYLSS Early Years Learning Support Service
    • EYPS Early Years Professional Status
    • GP General Practitioner
    • HIS Hearing Impairment Service
    • HISS Hearing Impairment Support Service
    • HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • HV Health Visitor
    • IAP Individual Action Programme
    • IEP Individual Education Plan
    • IL Interactive Learning
    • IPSS Independent Parental Support Service
    • LA Local Authority
    • LD Learning Difficulties
    • LEA Local Education Authority
    • LSA Learning Support Assistant
    • LSS Learning Support Service
    • MLD Mild or Moderate Learning Difficulties
    • PA Plan of Action
    • PP Play Plan
    • PSS Parental Support Service
    • SEASS Special Educational Advisory and Support Service
    • SEN Special Educational Needs
    • SENCO Special Educational Needs Coordinator
    • SISS Sensory Impairment Support Service
    • SLD Specific Learning Difficulties/Speech and Language Difficulties/Severe Learning Difficulties
    • VIS Visual Impairment Service
    • VISS Visual Impairment Support Service

    Further Reading

    A Manual for the Early Years SENCO, ColletteDrifte (Paul Chapman, 2005).
    All Together: How to Create Inclusive Services for Disabled Children and Their Families, M.Dickins and J.Denziloe (National Children's Bureau2003;
    1st edn
    , National Early Years Network, 1998).
    Behaviour in Pre-school Groups, AnnHenderson (Pre-school Learning Alliance, 1995).
    Behaviour in the Early Years, AngelaGlenn, JacquiCousins and AliciaHelps (David Fulton, 2003).
    Behaviour Problems in the Early Years, TheodoraPapatheodorou (RoutledgeFalmer, 2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203464656
    Behavioural and Emotional Difficulties, HannahMortimer (Scholastic, 2002).
    Developing Individual Behaviour Plans in the Early Years, HannahMortimer (NASEN, 2000).
    Early Learning Goals and Children with Special Needs, ColletteDrifte (David Fulton Publishers, 2002).
    Effective IEPs through Circle Time: Practical Solutions to Writing Individual Education Plans for Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, MargaretGoldthorpe (LDA, 2001;
    1st edn
    , 1998).
    Handbook for Pre-School SEN Provision: The SEN Code of Practice in Relation to the Early Years, ColletteDrifte (David Fulton Publishers, 2003).
    Managing Behaviour in the Early Years, JanetKay (Continuum, 2006).
    SEN Toolkit (DfES, 2001).
    Special Educational Needs Code of Practice (DfES, 2001).
    Special Needs and Early Years: A Practitioner's Guide, KateWall (Paul Chapman Publishing, 2003).
    Special Needs in Early Years Settings: A Practitioner's Guide, ColletteDrifte (David Fulton Publishers, 2002).
    Supporting Children with AD/HD and Attention Difficulties in the Early Years, HannahMortimer (QEd, 2002).
    Supporting Special Needs: Understanding Inclusion in the Early Years, PennyTassoni (Heinemann, 2003).
    Taking Part, HannahMortimer (QEd, 2000).
    Understanding Children's Challenging Behaviour, PennyMukherji (Nelson Thornes, 2001).
    Working Towards a Whole School Policy on Self-Esteem and Positive Behaviour, JennyMosley (Positive Press, 2001).
    Young Children's Behaviour: Practical Approaches for Caregivers and Teachers, LouisePorter (ed.) (Paul Chapman Publishing, 2003).

    CD-ROM Contents

    Chapter 1 – Page 5
    Appendix 3 – Page 86
    Chapter 1 – Page 6
    Appendix 3 – Page 86
    Chapter 1 – Page 13
    Chapter 2 – Page 20
    Chapter 1 – Page 6
    Chapter 2 – Page 32
    Chapter 2 – Page 32
    Chapter 3 – Page 39
    Chapter 3 – Page 40
    Chapter 3 – Page 41
    Chapter 3 – Page 42
    Chapter 3 – Page 48
    Chapter 3 – Page 53
    Chapter 3 – Page 54
    Chapter 3 – Page 55

    Photocopiable:

    Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years © Collette Drifte 2008

    Photocopiable:

    Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years © Collette Drifte 2008

    Photocopiable:

    Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years © Collette Drifte 2008

    Chapter 4 – Page 64

    Photocopiable:

    Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years © Collette Drifte 2008

    Chapter 4 – Page 68
    Appendix 3 – Page 89
    Chapter 4 – Page 74
    Chapter 4 – Page 75
    Chapter 4 – Page 76

    Appendix 1: EYPS Standards

    The award of the Early Years Professional Status requires a practitioner to demonstrate best practice in a total of 39 Standards, organised into six areas:

    • knowledge and understanding
    • effective practice
    • relationships with children
    • communicating and working in partnership with families and carers
    • teamwork and collaboration
    • professional development.

    Below are the 39 Standards, and you will see all of them clearly have a direct relevance to practitioners when supporting children with behaviour problems.

    Knowledge and Understanding
    • The principles and content of the Early Years Foundation Stage and how to put them into practice.
    • The individual and diverse ways in which children develop and learn from birth to the end of the Foundation Stage and thereafter.
    • How children's well-being, development, learning and behaviour can be affected by a range of influences and transitions from inside and outside the setting.
    • The main provisions of national and local statutory and non-statutory frameworks within which children's services work and their implications for early years settings.
    • The current legal requirements, national policies and guidance on health and safety, safeguarding the well-being of children and their implications for early years settings.
    • The contribution that other professionals within the setting and beyond can make to children's physical and emotional well-being, development and learning.
    Effective Practice
    • Have high expectations of all children and commitment to ensuring they can achieve their full potential.
    • Establish and sustain a safe, welcoming, purposeful, stimulating and encouraging environment where children feel confident and secure and are able to develop and learn.
    • Provide balanced and flexible daily and weekly routines that meet children's needs and enable them to develop and learn.
    • Use close, informed observation and other strategies to monitor children's activity, development and progress systematically and carefully, and use this information to inform, plan and improve practice and provision.
    • Plan and provide safe and appropriate child-led and adult-initiated experiences, experiences and play opportunities in indoor, outdoor and out-of-setting contexts, which enable the children to develop and learn.
    • Select, prepare and use a range of resources suitable for children's ages, interests and abilities, taking account of diversity and promoting equality and inclusion.
    • Make effective personalised provision for the children they work with.
    • Respond appropriately to children, informed by how children develop and learn and a clear understanding of possible next steps in their development and learning.
    • Support the development of children's language and communication skills.
    • Engage in sustained shared thinking with children.
    • Promote positive behaviour, self-control and independence through using effective behaviour management strategies and developing children's social, emotional and behavioural skills.
    • Promote children's rights, equality, inclusion and anti-discriminatory practice in all areas of their practice.
    • Establish a safe environment and employ practices that promote children's health, safety and physical, emotional and mental well-being.
    • Recognise when a child is in danger or at risk of harm and know how to act to protect them.
    • Assess, record and report on progress in children's development and learning and use this as a basis for differentiating provision.
    • Give constructive and sensitive feedback to help children understand what they have achieved and think about what they need to do next and, when appropriate, encourage children to think about, evaluate and improve on their own performance.
    • Identify and support those children whose development, progress or well-being are affected by changes or difficulties in their personal circumstances and know when to refer them to colleagues for specialist support.
    • Be accountable for the delivery of high-quality provision.
    Relationships with Children
    • Establish fair, respectful, trusting, supportive and constructive relationships with children.
    • Communicate sensitively and effectively with children from birth to the end of the Foundation Stage.
    • Listen to children, pay attention to what they say and value and respect their views.
    • Demonstrate the positive values, attitudes and behaviour they expect from the children.
    Communicating and Working in Partnership with Families and Carers
    • Recognise and respect the influential and enduring contribution that families and parents/ carers can make to children's development, well-being and learning.
    • Establish fair, respectful, trusting and constructive relationships with families and parents/ carers, and communicate sensitively and effectively with them.
    • Work in partnership with families and parents/carers, at home and in the setting, to nurture children, to help them develop and to improve outcomes for them.
    • Provide formal and informal opportunities through which information about children's well-being, development and learning can be shared between the setting and the families and parents/carers.
    Teamwork and Collaboration
    • Establish and sustain a culture of collaborative and cooperative working between colleagues.
    • Ensure that colleagues working with them understand their role and are involved appropriately in helping children to meet planned objectives.
    • Influence and shape the policies and practices of the setting and share in collective responsibility for their implementation.
    • Contribute to the work of a multi-professional team and, where appropriate, coordinate and implement agreed programmes and interventions on a day-to-day basis.
    Professional Development
    • Develop and use skills in literacy, numeracy and information and communication technology to support their work with children and wider professional activities.
    • Reflect on and evaluate the impact of practice, modifying approaches where necessary, and take responsibility for identifying and meeting their professional development needs.
    • Take a creative and constructively critical approach towards innovation, and adapt practice if benefits and improvements are identified.

    Acronym Crossword Puzzle

    For solution see next page.

    Acronym Crossword Puzzle Solution

    Letter to Difficult-to-Reach Parents (Differentiated Behaviour Plan)
    Letters to Difficult-to-Reach Parents (Missed Meeting Follow-up)
    Letters to Difficult-to-Reach Parents (Differentiated Behaviour Plan)
    Letter to Difficult-to-Reach Parents (Invitation to IEP Review)
    Letter to Difficult-to-Reach Parents (Missed Review Follow-up)

    Photocopiable:

    Encouraging Positive Behaviour in the Early Years © Collette Drifte 2008

    Positive Behaviour Individual Education Plan (Blank)
    Play Plan Form
    Positive Behaviour IEP Review Form (Blank)
    ABC Approach Observation Form (Blank)

    Child's name and date of birth:

    Observer's name:

    Date and time of observation:

    Focus of observation/area of learning:


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