- Subject index
Employment is closely connected to wealth, status, and security and is therefore a subject of interest across a range of academic disciplines. Employment Relations in the United States incorporates a wealth of research material from these different specialties to provide a historical perspective on the American workplace and the evolution of legal policies affecting employment. The analysis follows both a chronological and thematic arrangement, beginning with the importance of management practices, the growth of labor organizations and the impact of collective bargaining on employment institutions, and the subsequent rise of individual employment rights enforced through administrative and judicial means. Through its evolutionary approach, the book explains the fragmented, overlapping, and conceptually confusing regulatory environment governing workplace relations. It offers an integrated approach to such important contemporary policy issues as health care coverage, pensions, and effective dispute procedures. The book provides an analytical framework for an understanding of the unique nature of our labor markets and the role of government, employers, and unions. Key Features Provides students with the historical background they need to understand how the U.S. system developed and how it differs from systems in other industrialized nations Discusses individual employment rights, including protection from discrimination Covers current policy issues in employment, including raising the minimum wage, the growth of a contingent workforce, and privatizing retirement Offers a unique historical and evolutionary explanation of the nature of employment relations As a general overview of contemporary employment relations, Employment Relations in the United States is a perfect supplement to college courses in employment law, human resource management, and collective bargaining. Human resource managers, mediators, and professionals involved in labor relations will also find this an essential reference.
Chapter 3: Managerial Control and the Beginnings of State Regulation
Managerial Control and the Beginnings of State Regulation
Economic conditions in the United States began to improve during the mid-1890s, and as firms prospered, labor unions increased in size. Between 1897 and 1921, membership in trade unions grew from 544,000 to 4,269,000; as a percentage of nonagricultural employment, density climbed from 4.03 to 17.4 percent.1 With greater power and militancy, unions aggressively claimed an increased share of productive output until the 1920s, when adverse conditions halted union expansion. Firms continued to grow in size and scope, leading to reorganization of work processes and a consolidation of managerial control over production.2 At the same time, a changing political environment encouraged public demands for more effective oversight of corporate activity. ...