Emile Durkheim on the Family


Mary Ann Lamanna

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  • Understanding Families

    Series Editors: Bert N. Adams, University of Wisconsin

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    This book series examines a wide range of subjects relevant to studying families. Topics include, but are not limited to, theory and conceptual design, research methods on the family, racial/ethnic families, mate selection, marriage, family power dynamics, parenthood, divorce and remarriage, custody issues, and aging families.

    The series is aimed primarily at scholars working in family studies, sociology, psychology, social work, ethnic studies, gender studies, cultural studies, and related fields as they focus on the family. Volumes will also be useful for graduate and undergraduate courses in sociology of the family, family relations, family and consumer sciences, social work and the family, family psychology, family history, cultural perspectives on the family, and others.

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    • Current Widowhood: Myths & Realities Helena Znaniecka Lopata
    • Family Theories: An Introduction
    • David M. Klein and James M. White
    • Understanding Differences Between Divorced and Intact Families
    • Ronald L. Simons and Associates
    • Adolescents, Work, and Family: An Intergenerational Developmental Analysis
    • Jeylan T. Mortimer and Michael D. Finch
    • Families and Time: Keeping Pace in a Hurried Culture
    • Kerry J. Daly
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    • Contemporary Parenting: Challenges and Issues
    • Edited by Terry Arendell
    • Families Making Sense of Death
    • Janice Winchester Nadeau
    • Black Families in Corporate America
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    • Anna Dienhart
    • Problem Solving in Families: Research and Practice
    • Samuel Vuchinich
    • African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families
    • Shirley A. Hill
    • Black Men and Divorce
    • Erma Jean Lawson and Aaron Thompson
    • Romancing the Honeymoon: Consummating Marriage in Modern Society
    • Kris Bulcroft, Linda Smeins, and Richard Bulcroft
    • The Changing Transition to Adulthood: Leaving and Returning Home
    • Frances Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider
    • Families and Communes: An Examination of Nontraditional Lifestyles
    • William L. Smith
    • Women, Work, and Family: Balancing and Weaving
    • Angela Hattery
    • Emile Durkheim on the Family
    • Mary Ann Lamanna


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    Emile Durkheim on the Family is intended to make visible this classical sociologist's work on the family. Durkheim's writings on the family are little known, but in fact the family was one of his primary interests. Intended subject of a book that was never written, Durkheim's ideas on the family appeared only in scattered sources, and a number of those sources have not been translated into English. His sociology of the family has not yet been presented and analyzed holistically. The goal of this book is to do that.

    The purpose of the book is to bring together Durkheim's ideas on the family from diverse sources and to present his family sociology systematically and comprehensively. I have combed bibliographies of works on Durkheim, searched his journal Année sociologique and other journals of the period, followed leads in the many books and articles on Durkheim, scanned compendia of his work and pursued the original sources, read his major books and those less prominent, all in search of material on the family broadly defined. Some things are quite visible to Durkheim scholars and others (e.g., his views on women expressed in Suicide, 1897). Much is not. And because the material is so fragmented, getting a clear picture of Durkheim's work on the family requires a book that presents and integrates his writings.

    In Emile Durkheim on the Family, I have organized Durkheim's ideas topically, described his sociological perspective on the family, and provided analytical commentary. His theories are situated in their historical context, and comparisons are also drawn to present-day sociology of the family and family issues. Chapter topics include Durkheim's life and times; his evolutionary theory of the family; methodologies for studying the family; the changing relationship of kin, conjugal family, and the state; the interior of the family; family policy; gender; and sexuality. Although the presentation of Durkheim's theory is in my own words, quotations from Durkheim's writings are selected to enrich the presentation of his ideas.

    An examination of Durkheim's work on the family reveals its close connections to his well-known books and theories and enables us to get a fuller understanding and appreciation of Durkheim as social theorist. For the family studies scholar, this book reveals that Durkheim's work was an invisible forerunner of later themes in sociology of the family. The issues he addressed are still of interest in the field today. Emile Durkheim on the Family should interest audiences in sociology of the family, social theory, family science, social philosophy, European intellectual history, women's studies, legal history, and those generally interested in family studies and/or nineteenth-and early twentieth-century Europe. It should be useful to scholars in these areas because it provides a comprehensive view of Durkheim's work on the family and a roster of sources that can be pursued further. For those with a more limited interest, the book offers a broad overview of Durkheim on the family.

    There are some technical points regarding the many quotations from Durkheim's work that appear in the book that I would like to explain to the reader. I selected quotations primarily according to two opposite principles. First of all, I chose quotations that were representative of Durkheim's thought. Substantially similar versions of a point might have appeared in more than one publication or debate, sometimes repeated a number of times. I chose these. At the same time, I selected quotes that I was surprised to find in Durkheim's work. To present a quote one would not have thought typical of Durkheim is to expand our understanding of him. Last, I wanted the quotations to give something of the flavor and style of Durkheim's writing, and I chose with that goal in mind.

    I myself have done all the translation of Durkheim material included in the book, save for a very few where I could not locate the original source in French. Translation philosophies and styles vary. My preference is to render a natural-sounding expression of what the author has said in the original language rather than a literal word-for-word translation that may sound forced and awkward. Most often, my translation choices do not depart that far from the literal.

    I have sometimes eliminated words that do not carry substantive meaning, such as “in effect.” I have broken up sentences with many clauses to avoid what in English is considered a “run-on” sentence. That has involved changing punctuation accordingly. Certain French words, such as “morale,” have multiple meanings or different meanings from the English; I have tried to explain these in footnotes.

    I have used terms that are avoided today, such as “illegitimate,” because they capture the tone of the discourse of the times. The same is true regarding gender-neutral pronouns. Nineteenth-century writing used a firm “he” for the human. Also, categories referenced by male pronouns often were in fact uniformly male in composition. To convert these to suit present-day sensibilities would be essentially inaccurate as a characterization of the times.

    In the bibliography and in citations in the text, I have used the French system of capitalization for works written in French. The fact that Durkheim is French is not coincidental to my deciding to write this book. When Professor Fabio DaSilva of Notre Dame suggested Durkheim as a paper topic in his theory class, I was not excited. Emile Durkheim was not even my classical theorist of choice; I preferred Simmel. But Durkheim did have the advantage of being French. So what did that have to do with anything? A lot. Professor DaSilva knew that I read French and also that my chosen area of specialization was sociology of the family. He called my attention to an article by Georges Davy, Durkheim's student and later colleague, that summarized the notes Davy had taken on Durkheim's family course. I had not known of Durkheim's interest in the family and was intrigued. A class paper did not seem to be that much of a commitment.

    Some years later, I was at work on a book on Durkheim's sociology of the family, which is now completed. Forced (so to speak) to take a broader—and ultimately deeper—look at Durkheim's work, I developed an appreciation for his complex reasoning, his wide interests, his elucidation of so many ideas I had thought to be original with my contemporaries. I got to know a Durkheim who was not so apparent from secondary sources. I see limitations both to Durkheim's interests in the family and his theoretical approach. But he is always interesting, and I have enjoyed the time spent in putting this book together and trying to make it better.

    I also began to think of it as a mission. I was surprised to learn there was a Durkheim on the family; who wouldn't have been? I wanted to let others know. That is what I have tried to do in this book—to make varied audiences aware of Durkheim's writing (and speaking) on the family. I wanted not only to make its existence known but also to expand on that so that those who will not necessarily pursue original sources to find Durkheim's sociology of the family can nevertheless be somewhat informed on the subject.

    There is a personal satisfaction for me in a project that depends on working with French. That comes from personal history, the chance factor of growing up next door to a French professor, his wife, and their French-speaking children. I picked up some French by learning the lingo I needed for my baby-sitting job. Younger brothers of the professor came from Quebec for the summer. The visiting brothers, with time on their hands, taught me French vocabulary and grammar a little more systematically. Soon, I was off to college as a French major (for a time) and then to France to study political science and the European community. The Durkheim book project has meant that I could combine my two intellectual interests: sociology and the French language.

    I need to begin my acknowledgments with an appreciation for these former St. Louis neighbors, Henri Robitaille and Nancy (Robitaille) Moberly. It is a thanks that goes beyond the language opportunity to a recognition that it is they who prodded me to think of myself as an intellectual. I want to let Professor Emeritus Fabio DaSilva of the University of Notre Dame know that I have never forgotten his initiative in giving me the idea for what has now become a book. He could do that because of his amazing knowledge of the field of sociology and his skill at inspiring his students.

    Ideas need a venue for their expression, and it is through Bert Adams and Dave Klein and the Understanding Families series that I have been able to write about Durkheim's sociology of the family with the prospect of an audience. They took an interest in Emile Durkheim on the Family when it was still somewhat unformed, far from complete. They have been totally encouraging and very patient during the process of writing the book. Their critical feedback and that of an anonymous reviewer have contributed to great improvement of the manuscript over its starting point. (Though they are, of course, not responsible for remaining faults or inadequacies.) I am honored to be included in the quality series that they have put together as Understanding Families. They have been a pleasure to work with as series editors, very thoughtful and quite stimulating intellectually.

    I also want to thank the editorial and production people at Sage Publications for their work in bringing my book to publication. Jim Brace-Thompson, Sociology Editor, who took over a project in progress, has been very good to work with—very supportive in the final stages of book completion. Karen Ehrmann, Editorial Assistant, handled the transition from manuscript submission to production process smoothly, all the while fielding my numerous questions. Diana Axelsen, Senior Production Editor, and Kathryn Journey, Editorial Assistant, have managed the production process competently and well. I am most directly aware of the work of Marilyn Power Scott, copy editor, because we have had frequent and detailed communication. Her questions and suggestions have contributed greatly to the substance of the book, improving clarity and smoothing wording to enhance the presentation of my ideas. Her adeptness in handling the French language references and the numerous quotations were but one aspect of a professional competence evident to me in every detail of our correspondence. Doreen Barnes, typesetter, did a beautiful—and accurate—job of putting the manuscript into print. Thanks to you all and to unknown others at Sage who have worked on Emile Durkheim on the Family.

    There are other persons who have contributed to the book in important ways. I am enormously grateful to M. Etienne Halphen, Emile Durkheim's grandson, who sent family photos and gave permission for their use on the cover and in the interior of the book. I am very happy to be able to include these informal photos of M. Durkheim with his wife, daughter (M. Halphen's mother), a grandson, and other family members in a book that has Durkheim's work on the family as its theme. I thank M. Halphen for making this possible and for responding to my request so quickly. I am also very indebted to Geoff Alpert (whose father was Durkheim's biographer) without whom I would not even have known of the existence of these photos. And I thank Stjepan Meštrović (author of three books on Durkheim), who took considerable time and trouble to tell me about Durkheim family photos, to mail me photos several times over, and, in general, to express enthusiasm for the book and offer practical support for its aesthetics.

    Thanks to Stephen Turner and to Rebecca Emigh for sending me papers useful in reflecting on Durkheim's work. Every now and then, I mentioned my book project to Bob Antonio of the University of Kansas, and he was always affirming. I owe a huge debt to the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Interlibrary Loan Department, and I would like to list by name those who did work related to my book: Ben Blackwell, Diane Davis, Molly Fairchild, Jason Gaines, Steve Hunt, Mary Mick, Matt Rohde, John Schneiderman, Catherine Walker, Madaline Williams, and Richard Wyatt. A book whose sources are primarily French and from earlier in the century is a challenge in terms of library resources. The UNO library has some surprising things, including a facsimile edition of Année sociologique. But I was very dependent on interlibrary loan resources, and this group filled hundreds of requests, many for obscure French titles, and some of them several times over as I thought of one more thing that needed checking. The UNO Sociology and Anthropology Department has provided me with resources, and more important, with good colleagues.

    Numerous friends encouraged me throughout this project, and to attempt to name them one by one would be to risk not including all who should be. At UNO, I would mention especially Lourdes Gouveia, my sociology colleague and friend, and Elvira Garcia and Patrice Proulx, who keep me in touch with the French language. Margaret Porter, Diane and Joe Wood, Diane and Mike Gillespie, Mary Tourek, Jenny White, Catharine Krull, Mary and Pat Sweaney, Susan Poser, and Steve di Magno have helped me finish this book by their friendship, which has kept me going through a long project. My children, Valerie Lamanna and Larry Lamanna, and Janice, his wife, have always helped me to see the world beyond the office.

    And finally, to my companion and friend of twenty years, Sam Walker, to whom this book is dedicated, thanks for finding this book an admirable project, for encouraging and supporting my work on it in so many ways, and for being a model as a scholar.

    Dedicated to Sam

  • References

    Works by Durkheim
    Buisson, Ferdinand and EmileDurkheim. 1911. “Enfance.” Pp. 552–53 in Nouveau dictionnaire de pédagogie et d'instruction primaire, edited by FerdinandBuisson. Paris: Hachette.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1885. Review of A. Schaeffle, Bau und Leben des Sozialem Körpers, vol. 1. Revue philosophiqueXIX:84–101.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1886. Review of de Greef, Guillaume, Introduction à la sociologie, 1ème Partie, Paris and Brussels. Revue philosophiqueXXII:658–63.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1888a. “Introduction à la sociologie de la famille.”Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux10:257–81.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1888b. “Suicide et natalité: étude de statistique morale.”Revue philosophiqueXXVI:446–63.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1889. Review of Ferdinand Tönnies, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Abhandlung des Communismus und des Socialismus als empirischer Culturformen. Revue philosophiqueXXVII:416–422.
    Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1978. De la division du travail social. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France [Alcan].
    Durkheim, Emile. [1895a] 1956. Les Règles de la méthode sociologique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France [Alcan].
    Durkheim, Emile. 1895b. “Revue critique: L'Origine du mariage dans l'espèce humaine, d'après Westermarck.”Revue philosophiqueXL:606–23.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1895c. “Lo stato attuale degli studi sociologici in Francia.”La riforma socialeIII: 607–622; 691–707. Pp. 73–108 in Emile Durkheim: Textes, vol. 1, edited by VictorKarady. Paris: Les Editions de minuit, 1975.
    Durkheim, Emile. [1897a] 1930. Le suicide: Étude de sociologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France [Alcan].
    Durkheim, Emile. 1897b. “Il suicidio dal punto di vista sociologico.”Rivista italiana di sociologicaI:17–27. [Italian translation of pp. 1–15 of Emile Durkheim, Le suicide, slightly modified.].
    Durkheim, Emile. 1897c. Review of Antonio Labriola, Essais sur la conception matérialiste de l'histoire, Paris: Girard et Brière. Revue philosophiqueXLIV:645–51.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898a. “L'individualisme et les intellectuels.”Revue bleue (4e série)X:7–13. (Also cited as Revue politique et littéraire).
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898b. “Préface.”Année sociologiqueI:i–vii.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898c. “La Prohibition de l'inceste et ses origines.”Année sociologiqueI:1–70.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898d. Letter to the Editor. American Journal of Sociology3:848–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ajs.1898.3.issue-6
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898e. Review of B. H. Baden-Powell, The Indian Village Community, London: Longmans, Green, 1896. Année sociologiqueI:359–63.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898f. Review of Ernest Grosse, Die Formen der Familie und die Formen der Wirthschaft, Fribourg-en-Brisgau: Mohr. Année sociologiqueI:319–32.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898g. Review of Jobbé-Duval, “La Commune annamite,” Nouvelle Revue historique de droit français et étranger, Oct., Dec. 1896. Année sociologiqueI: 363–66.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898h. Review of Joseph Kohler, Zur Urgeschichte der Ehe. Totemismus, Gruppenehe, Mutterrecht, vol. 1, Stuttgart: Enke. Année sociologiqueI:306–19.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898i. Review of Ed. Meynial, “Le Mariage après les invasions,” Nouvelle Revue historique de droit français et étranger (1896:4, 6; 1897:2). Année sociologiqueI:340–43.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1898j. Review of Ernest Miler, “Die Hauskommunion der Südslaven,” 1897, pp. 199–222 in Jahrbuch der Internationalen Vergleichen de Rechtswissenschaft und Volkswirtschaftelehre, Division I. Année sociologiqueI:339.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899a. “Antisémitisme et crise sociale.” Pp. 59–63 in H.Dagan, Enquête sur l'antisémitisme. Paris: Stock.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899b. “Morphologie sociale.”Année sociologiqueII:520–21.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899c. “Préface.”Année sociologiqueII:i–vi.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899d. Review of W. v. Bulow, “Die Ehegesetze der Samoaner,” Globus 73:185ff. Année sociologiqueII:343.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899e. Review of Stanislas Ciszewski, Künstliche Verwandtschaft bei Den Südslaven, Dissertation, University of Leipzig, 1897. Année sociologiqueII:321–23.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899f. Review of A. Lefas, “L'Adoption testamentaire à Rome,” Nouvelle Revue historique de droit français et étranger, No. 6. 1897. Année sociologiqueII:325–27.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899g. Review of D. Théophil Loebel, Hochzeitsbräuche in der Türkei, Amsterdam: J.-H. de Bussy, n.d. Année sociologiqueII:334–36.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899h. Review of K. Heinrich Schaible, Die Frau im Altertum, Karlsruhe: Braun, 1896. Année sociologiqueII:313–14.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1899i. Review of W. I. Thomas, “The Relationship of Sex to Primitive Social Control,”American Journal of Sociology3 (1898):754–76. Année sociologiqueII:328–329.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900a. Review of Franz Boas, The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. Année sociologiqueIII:336–40.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900b. Review of Arsène Dumont, Natalité et démocratie, Paris: Schleicher, 1898. Année sociologiqueIII:558–61.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900c. Review of J. Goldstein, Die vermeintlichen und die wirklichen Ursachen des Bevoelkerungsstillstandes in Frankreich, Munich: Piloty & Loehle, 1989. Année sociologiqueIII:561–63.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900d. Review of N. Klugmann, Vergleichende Studien zur Stellung Frau im Talmud, Frankfurt: Kauffmann, 1898. Année sociologiqueIII:388–89.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900e. Review of Anna Lampérière, Le rôle social de la femme, Paris: Alcan, 1898. Année sociologiqueIII:390–91.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900f. Review of Victor Marx, Die Stellung der Frauen in Babylonien, Leipzig: Pries, 1989. Année sociologiqueIII:389–90.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900g. Review of A. Posada, Feminismo, Madrid: Fé, 1899. Année sociologiqueIII:391.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900h. Review of Prinzing, “Die Sterblichkeit der Ledigen und der Verheirateten,” Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, vol. 1, Halband. Année sociologiqueIII:563.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900i. Review of G. B. Salvioni, “Zur Statistik der Haushaltungen,” pp. 191–236 in Allgemeines Statistiche Archiv, vol. 1. Année sociologiqueIII:571–73.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900j. Review of C.-V. Starke, La famille dans les différentes sociétés, Paris: Giard et Brière, 1899. Année sociologiqueIII:365–70.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900k. Review of Thorstein Veblen, The Beginnings of Ownership. Année sociologiqueIII:398.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1900l. Review of Thorstein Veblen, “The Barbarian Status of Women,” American Journal of Sociology 4 (1899):503–15. Année sociologiqueIII:392.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901a. “Introduction” [to the section on] “Sociologie criminelle et statistique morale.”Année sociologiqueIV:433–36.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901b. Review of Albert Cahuzac, Essai sur les institutions et le droit malgaches, vol. 1. Paris: Chevalier-Maresq, 1900. Année sociologiqueIV:342–45.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901c. Review of Alfred Fouilleé, La France au point de vue moral, Paris: Alcan, 1900. Année sociologiqueIV:443–45.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901d. Review of J.-G. Fraser, “Suggestions as to the Origin of Gender in Language,” The Fortnightly Review (Jan. 1900):79–90. Année sociologiqueIV:364–65.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901e. Review of Ludwig Fuld, “Die frauen und das Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch,” Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, 1900, No. 4. Année sociologiqueIV:365.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901f. Review of Paul Kollmann, “Die sociale Zusammensetzung der Bevoelkerung im Deutschen Reiche,” Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft (1900):59–107. Année sociologiqueIV:436–38.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901g. Review of Friedrich Lindner, Die unehelichen Geburten als Socialphaenomon, Leipzig: A Deichert, 1900. Année sociologiqueIV:441–43.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901h. Review of Jacques Lourbet, Le problème des sexes, Paris: Giard et Briére, 1900. Année sociologiqueIV:364.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901i. Review of Prinzing, “Die sociale Lage der Witwe in Deutschland;” Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, 1900, No. 2:96–109; No. 3:199–205; “Grundzúge und Kosten eines Gesetzes über die Fürsorge für die Witwen und Waisen der Arbeiter, Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, 1900, No. 4:262–77. Année sociologiqueIV:438–40.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901j. Review of W. Rein, “Jugendliches Verbrechertum und seine Bekaempfung,” Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, 1900, No. 1:41–57. Année sociologiqueIV:451–52.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1901k. Review of Fritz Roeder, Die Familie bei den Angelsachsen, Halle: Niemeyer, 1899. Année sociologiqueIV:357–58.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902a. “Quelques remarques sur les groupements professionels.” “Préface.” Pp. i–xxxvi in De la division du travail social,
    2d ed.
    Paris: Alcan.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902b. “Sur le totémisme.”Année sociologiqueV:82–121.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902c. Review of J. Bertillon, “Nombre d'enfants par famille,” Journal de la société de statistique de Paris (1901), No. 4:130–45. Année sociologiqueV:435–36.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902d. Review of Ernest Crawley, The Mystic Rose: A Study of Primitive Marriage, London: Macmillan, 1902. Année sociologiqueVI:352–58.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902e. Review of de J. Du Plessis Grenédan, Histoire de l'autorité paternelle et de la société familiale en France avant 1789, Paris: Artur Rousseau, 1900. Année sociologiqueV:376–79.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902f. Review of Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Philadelphia: Davis, 1901. Année sociologiqueV:392.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902g. Review of Freidrich Prinzing, “Die eheliche Fruchtbarkeit in Deutschland,” Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft 1901, Issue 1:336–338; Issue 2:290–311; Issue 3:188–90. Année sociologiqueV:436–37.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1902h. Review of Félix Dupré la Tour, De la recherche de la paternité en droit comparé, Paris: Rousseau, 1900. Année sociologiqueV:379–81.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1903a. Review of R. Caillemer, Origines et développement de l'exécution testamentaire, Lyon: 1901. Année sociologiqueVI:345–50.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1903b. Review of Maurice Courant, En Chine: moeurs et institutions, Paris: 1901. Année sociologiqueVI:367–69.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1903c. Review of A. Esmein, “Les coutumes primitives dans les écrits mythologiques grecs et romains,” Nouvelle revue historique de droit français et étranger 5–32; 113–46. Année sociologiqueVI:359–61.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1903d. Review of Abel Pouzol, La recherche de la paternité: Etude critique de la sociologie et de législation comparée, Paris: Giard et Brière, 1902. Annèe sociologiqueVI:415–18.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1903e. Review of William Rullkoeter, The Legal Protection of Woman Among the Ancient Germans, Chicago: 1900. Année sociologiqueVI: 366.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1903f. Review of C.-A. Stuart Verrijn. “Untersuchungen über die Beziehung zwischen Wohlstand, Natalität und Kindersterblichkeit in den Niederlanden,” Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft, 1901, Issue 10:649–62. Année sociologiqueVI:546–47.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904a. “L'Elite intellectuelle et la démocratie. Revue bleue 5ème, 1. No. 23 (June 4):705–706.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904b. “La Sociologie et les sciences sociales.” Resumé d'une conference à l'Ecole des hautes études sociales à Paris (1903). Revue internationale de sociologieXII: 83–87.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904c. Remarks at oral examination of doctoral candidate Glotz on “Solidarity of the Family in the Criminal Law of Ancient Greece.”Revue de PhilosophieIV (2) (Oct.). Translation (by Lukes) pp. 624–26 in Steven Lukes, Emile Durkheim. New York: Harper, 1972.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904d. Review of Max Bauer, Das Geschlechtsleben in der deutschen Vergangenheit, Leipzig, 1902. Année sociologiqueVII:439–40.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904e. Review of E. Glasson. Histoire du droit et des institutions de la France, vol. VIII Epoque Monarchique, Paris: F. Pichon, 1902. Année sociologiqueVII: 428–33.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904f. Review of Charles Letourneau, La condition de la femme dans les diverses races et civilisations, Paris: Giard et Brière, n.d. Année sociologiqueVII:433–34.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904g. Review of E. Maurel, Causes de notre dépopulation, Paris: Doin. Année sociologiqueVII:655.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904h. Review of Richard Niese, “Das Personnen—und Familienrecht der Suaheli,” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft 16:203–48, Stuttgart, 1903. Année sociologiqueVII:420–23.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904i. Review of Pierre-André Pidoux, Histoire du mariage et du droit des gens mariés en Franche-Comté, Dôle: 1902. Année sociologiqueVII:436–38.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904j. Review of Hans Stockar, Ueber den Entzug der vaeterlichen Gewalt im roemischen Recht, Zurich: Schulthess, 1903. Année sociologiqueVII:427–28.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1904k. Review of Max Thal, Mutterrecht, Frauenfrage und Weltanschauung, Breslau: Schottlander, 1903. Année sociologiqueVII:418.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905a. “Sur l'organisation matrimoniale des sociétés australiennes.”Année sociologiqueVIII:118–47.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905b. “Le Problème de la solidarité familial et du totémisme chez les Hébreux.” Resumé du débat à la soutenance de thèse de L. Germain-Lévy. Revue de Philosophie V:486–89. Pp. 130–33 in Emile Durkheim. Textes, vol. 2. Edited by VictorKarady. Paris: Les Editions de minuit.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905c. Review of Gustave Glotz, La Solidarité de la famille dans le droit criminel en Grèce, Paris: Funtemoing, 1904. Année sociologiqueVIII:465–72.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905d. Review of Clément Juglar, Tableau des naissances en France, en Angleterre, en Prusse, en Allemagne, et dans leurs capitales, Orléans: Paul Pigelet, 1903:20 in 8r (Extrait du compte rendu de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques). Année sociologiqueVIII:616–17.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905e. Review of A.-N. Kiaer, Statistische Beitraege zur Beleuchtung der ehelichen Fruchbarkeit, Christiana: Jacob Dybwad, 1903. Année sociologiqueVIII:618–19.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905f. Review of Fusamaro Tsugaru, Die Lehre von der Japanischen Adoption, Berlin: Mayer and Müller. Année sociologiqueVIII:409–13.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1905g. Review of Kojiro Twasaky, Das japonische Eherecht, Leipzig: 1904 and of Saburo Sakamoto, Das Ehescheidungsrecht Japans, Berlin: 1903. Année sociologiqueVIII:421–25.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1906a. “Le Divorce par consentement mutuel.”Revue bleue, 5e série, V:549–54.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1906b. Review of George Elliott Howard, A History of Maltrimonial Institutions, 3 vols, London: Fisher Unwin; Chicago: Callahan. Année sociologiqueIX:384–92.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1906c. Review of Othmar Spann, “Die Stiefvaterfamilie unehelichen Ursprungs. Zugleich eine Studie zur Methodologie der Unehelichkeits-Statistik, Zeitschrift für Socialwissenschaft (1904):539–74. Année sociologiqueIX:435–38.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1906d. Review of Alfred Valensi, L'application de la loi du divorce en France, Paris: Larose et Tenin, 1905. Année sociologiqueIX:438–43.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1906e. Review of Edward Westermarck, “The Position of Women in Early Civilization,” American Journal of Sociology 10 (1904):408–21. Année sociologiqueIX:380.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1907a. “Deuxième Lettre de M. Durkheim.”Revue néo-scolastiqueXIV:612–14.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1907b. Review of James Bryce, Marriage and Divorce, New York: Oxford University Press, 1905. Année sociologiqueX:436–37.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1907c. Review of Thad. Engert, Ehe-und-Familienrecht der Hebräer, München, Lenther'sche Buchhandlung 1905. Année sociologiqueX:427–29.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1907d. Review of Henri Guigon, La succession des bâtards dans l'ancienne Bourgogne, Dijon: 1905. Année sociologiqueX:435–36.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1907e. Review of Edward Westermarck, The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, vol. 1, London: Macmillan 1906. Année sociologiqueX:383–95.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1908. Débat sur l'explication en histoire et en sociologie. Bulletin de la société française de philosophieVIII:229–45, 347.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1909a. “Sociologie et sciences sociales.” Pp. 259–85 in De la Méthode dans les Sciences, 1ère série, edited by FélixAlcan. Paris: Alcan.
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    Durkheim, Emile. 1910a. Contribution to discussion of “La Notion d'égalité sociale” (Dec. 30, 1909). Bulletin de la société française de philosophie10:59–63, 65–67, 69–70. Translated as “A Debate on Egalitarian Ideas.” Pp. 86–193 in Emile Durkheim, On Politics and the State, edited by Anthony Giddens. Translated by W. D. Halls. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1986.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910b. Review of Georg Buschan, Geschlecht und Verbrechen, Berlin and Leipzig, Hermann Seemann, n.d. Année sociologiqueXI:492–94.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910c. Review of Joseph Kohler, “Ueber Totemismus und Urehe.” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenshaft XIX:177–88; “Eskimo und Gruppenehe,” Z.f.v.R. XIX:423–32; “Nochmals ueber Gruppenehe und Totemismus,” Z.f.v.R. XIX:252–67. Année sociologiqueXI:359–61.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910d. Review of H. A. Krose, Die Ursachen der Selbstmordäufhigkeit, Freiburg: B. Herder, 1906. Année sociologiqueXI:511–15.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910e. Review of Alfred Obrist, Essai sur les origines du testament romain, Lausanne: 1906. Année sociologiqueXI:352–54.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910f. Review of Gaston Richard, La femme dans l'histoire, Paris: 1909. Année sociologiqueXI:369–71.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910g. Review of Alexa Stanischitsch, Ueber den Ursprung der Zadruga: Eine Soziologische Untersuchung, Bern: Buchdruckeri Scheitlin, Spring and Co., 1907. Année sociologiqueXI:343–47.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910h. Review of Otto Stoll, Das Geschlechtsleben in der Voelkerpsychologie, Leipzig: Viet, 1908. Année sociologiqueXI:375–83.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1910i. Review of Marianne Weber, Ehefrau und Mutter in der Rechtsentwicklung. Année sociologiqueXI:363–69.
    Durkheim, Emile. 1911. Contribution to discussion of “L' Education sexuelle.” Bulletin de la societé française de philosophie XI:33–38, 44–47. Pp. 241–51 in Emile Durkheim, Textes, vol. 2. Paris: Les Editions de minuit, 1975.
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    Durkheim, Emile. 1913b. Review of Franz Boas, The Mind of Primitive Man, New York: Macmillan. Année sociologiqueXII:31–33.
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    About the Author

    Mary Ann Lamanna is Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, where she has been on the faculty since 1977. She spent a postbaccalaureate year at the University of Strasbourg, France, on a Fulbright Scholarship. She earned an MA in sociology is from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a PhD in sociology from the University of Notre Dame (1977).

    She is the author (with Agnes Riedmann) of Marriages and Families: Making Choices in a Diverse Society, now in its seventh edition. She has published articles on nineteenth-century women, adolescent women's discourse on sexuality and reproduction, images of mothers in legal opinions, gender issues in the teaching of criminal law, the gift exchange in organ and tissue donation, and the sociological framing of the abortion issue. She plans a future book on sociological themes in the writings of Marcel Proust.

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