Effective Teaching with Internet Technologies: Pedagogy and Practice


Alan Pritchard

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    This book is dedicated firstly to a large group of creative teachers for allowing me to share their ideas, secondly to Jackie, my wife, for allowing me to go missing so often, and lastly to my daughters, Maria and Frances, for allowing me occasional use of my computer. I love you all.

    List of Figures

    • 3.1 Part of the activities list in Quia for mathematics 30
    • 3.2 An example screen from a matching activity in Quia 32
    • 3.3 An example of a Quia screen 35
    • 3.4 The opening screen of a Builder Ted activity, showing the ladder where the bricks have to be placed in the correct order 36
    • 3.5 Some of the “Tips” from the activity 37
    • 3.6 Part of the background information from the activity, which was used with the whole class as an introduction 38
    • 3.7 A part completed map-labelling activity 43
    • 4.1 Example of an introductory page to the virtual war room tour 50
    • 4.2 The map room worksheet (a simplified version of this sheet was produced for the lower ability group to use) 51
    • 4.3 Part of the Virtual Synagogue site 58
    • 4.4 The beginning of the Musical Mystery 64
    • 5.1 Welcome to Welltown 74
    • 5.2 Games section of the Welltown site 75
    • 5.3 A completed worksheet made by the teacher using artwork copied from the website 78
    • 5.4 One of the downloadable worksheets from the Welltown site 79
    • 5.5 A completed downloadable worksheet 83
    • 5.6 One of the pages from the developing school website. The text was composed by the children 84
    • 5.7 View that the teacher has of the remote class that she is teaching 88
    • 5.8 The view of the teacher that the children have during the lesson 89
    • 5.9 An example web page with text, images and hyperlinks 98
    • 5.10 One of the recipes from the UK school; evaluated by the Spanish School 104
    • 5.11 Opening page of the Greek Worship webquest 109

    List of Tables

    • 2.1 Percentage of schools connected to the internet since 1998 (Source: DfES 2004a) 15
    • 2.2 A selection of domain codes 18
    • 3.1 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Drilling for tables 34
    • 3.2 Drilling for tables: Other considerations/features 34
    • 3.3 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Builder Ted and decimals 40
    • 3.4 Builder Ted and Decimals: Other considerations/features 40
    • 3.5 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Find a place in the world 45
    • 3.6 Find a place in the world: Other considerations/features 46
    • 4.1 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Virtual tour of the Cabinet War Rooms 55
    • 4.2 Virtual tour of the Cabinet War Rooms: Other considerations/features 55
    • 4.3 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Exploring places of worship 61
    • 4.4 Exploring places of worship: Other considerations/features 62
    • 4.5 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Key stage 1 music games 69
    • 4.6 Key stage 1 music games: Other considerations/features 70
    • 5.1 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Key stage 1 health education 86
    • 5.2 Key stage 1 health education: Other considerations/features 86
    • 5.3 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Modern foreign languages and video-conferencing 93
    • 5.4 Modern foreign languages and video-conferencing: Other considerations/features 94
    • 5.5 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Children publishing their work 100
    • 5.6 Children publishing their work: Other considerations/features 100
    • 5.7 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: International recipe exchange via e-mail 106
    • 5.8 International recipe exchange via e-mail: Other considerations/features 106
    • 5.9 Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT related lessons: Using a webquest 112
    • 5.10 Using a webquest: Other considerations/features 113
    • 6.1 Number of times features of constructivist lessons with ICT recorded in case studies 119
    • 6.2 Number of times other considerations/features recorded in case studies 119


    Thank you to all teachers and children who have let me observe and question at will. Without the access to classrooms and without the time that teachers have freely given over the last years this book would not have been possible.

    Companion Website

    You can find a companion website for this book at http://www.sagepub.co.uk/pritchard. The site links you to related websites for most of the case studies, as well as featuring images of children's work and other supporting material. There is also some suggested reading that you might like to follow up, and extracts from some of the author's other published work.

  • Appendix 1 Pedagogical and Theoretical Considerations: Explanatory Notes

    Characteristics of constructivist learning that might be present in ICT: Questions to consider
    Multiple perspectivesWere different viewpoints offered by the website or other resources?
    Pupil-directed goalsDid children decide their own goals or courses of action?
    Teachers as coachesWere the teachers involved teaching in terms of telling the children certain things, or guiding them towards finding out?
    MetacognitionIs there any specifically metacognitive activity encouraged; is there any as an unintended result?
    Learner controlDo the children have a degree of control over what they are doing and how they go about it? Are they able to make decisions about the progress of what they are doing?
    Real-world activities and contextsIs the work set in a “real” or mainly authentic context?
    Knowledge constructionIs opportunity to actively construct new knowledge provided? (c.f. practice and revision).
    Sharing knowledgeAre there opportunities to share new knowledge and understanding with others?
    Reference to what pupils know alreadyIs existing prior knowledge activated and referred to at the outset and during the work?
    Problem solvingAre children involved in problem solving activities?
    Explicit thinking about errors and misconceptionsAre errors and misconceptions highlighted and made the focus of development?
    ExplorationAre opportunities for exploring the topic and associated contiguous areas provided?
    Peer-group learningAre opportunities provided for peer–peer interactions, activity and decision making?
    Alternative viewpoints offeredAre the children provided with alternative opinions or viewpoints concerning issues that may be controversial?
    ScaffoldingIs appropriate support provided in a number of different ways – adult intervention, alternative activities, amended resources, and so on?
    Assessment for learningIs there opportunity for teachers to make assessments which will inform the next stages of learning?
    Primary sources of dataAre children involved with the use of first hand data sources?
    Other considerations/features
    MotivationDoes the activity seem to act as a motivational factor, including the motivation often offered by computer/internet use?
    EnjoymentDo the children seem to enjoy what they are doing?
    ExcitementDoes the work or the prospect of the work engender excitement?
    NoveltyIs there any novelty effect, either in the nature of the activity, or simply in the use of the computer/internet?
    EngagementIs there a good level of engagement with the activities?
    Development of work away from the computerDoes the work “at” the computer lead to development and other related activity away from the computer?
    Evidence of learningWhat evidence is there of learning having taken place?

    Appendix 2 Case Studies


    Alexander, R. (1992) Policy and Practice in Primary Education. London: Routledge.
    Bartlett, F.C. (1958) Thinking. New York: Basic Books.
    BBC (2002) Maths File Game Show: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/mathsfile/shockwave/games/laddergame.html (Accessed 27.10.06)
    BBC (undated) Musical Mysteries for Key Stages 1 and 2. BBC Northern Ireland: http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/schools/4_11/music/mm/index.shtml (Accessed 27.10.06)
    BBC (undated) Children of World War Two: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2children/ (Accessed 22.07.06)
    British Council (2006) Global Gateway: http://www.globalgateway.org.uk/ (Accessed 29.09.06)
    Brown, A. (1987) Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F.E.Weinert, and R.H.Kluwe (eds) Metacognition, Motivation and Understanding65–116. Laurence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
    Brown, J. S., Collins, A. and Duguid, P. (1989) ‘Situated cognition and the culture of learning’, Educational Researcher, 18 (1) 32–42.
    Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Central Advisory Council for Education (CACE) (1967) Children and their Primary Schools (The Plowden Report). London: HMSO.
    Chandler, D. (1984) Young Learners and the Microcomputer. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Chastain, K. (1971) The Development of Modern Language Skills: Theory to Practice. Philadelphia: Center for Curriculum Development.
    Cordes, C. and Miller, E. (2000) Fool's Gold: A Critical Look at Computers in Childhood. College Park, MD: Alliance for Childhood.
    Cox, M. (1997) Impact of Information Technology on Student's Motivation: Final Report. London: King's College.
    CWR (undated) Cabinet War Rooms and Churchill Museum: http://cwr.iwm.org.uk/ (Accessed 15.07.06)
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (1999) The National Curriculum. London: DFEE/QCA.
    (DES) (1982) Mathematics Counts (Cockcroft Report). London: HMSO.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (1998) Circular number 4/98 Annex B: Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for the Use of Information and Communications Technology in Subject Teaching. London: DfES. http://www.dfes.gov.uk/publications/guidanceonthelaw/4_98/annexb.htm (Accessed 30.05.06)
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004b) Pedagogy and Practice. Creating Effective Learners: Using ICT to Enhance Learning. London: DfES. Also available at: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/keystage3/downloads/sec_pptl043804u15using_ict.pdf (Accessed 06.11.06)
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (undated) Super Highway Safety: http://stage-safety.ngfl.gov.uk/schools/ (Accessed 14.01.06)
    Department for Education and Skils (DfES) (undated) ICT at Key Stages 1 and 2: Unit 6A. Multimedia Presentation: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/it/itx6a/ (Accessed 12.12.05)
    Department of Education and Skills (DfES) Department of Health (DoH) (2004) Welltown: http://www.welltown.gov.uk/ (Accessed 20.10.06)
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (1997–2006) The Standards Site: Schemes of Work: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes3/(Accessed 17.10.06)
    Department of Health (DOH) (undated) Wired for Health: helping schools become healthy and effective: http://www.wiredforhealth.gov.uk/ (Accessed 20.10.06)
    Dern, D.P. (1994) The Internet Guide for New Users. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Dickens, C. (1981) Hard TimesChapman and Hall: London.
    Dodge, B. (1997) Some Thoughts About WebQuests: http://webquest.sdsu.edu/about_webquests.html (Accessed 16.10.05)
    Ellis, A. (1974) The Use and Misuses of Computers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Education Testing Service (ETS) (2006) Brain Compatible Learning Environments: http://www.ets.org (Accessed 16.11.06)
    European Schoolnet (undated) Pedagogical FAQ: http://www.eun.org/eun.org2/eun/en/print_preview.cfm?oid=856 (Accessed 29.05.06)
    Fennema, E. and Franke, M.L. (1992) “Teachers’ Knowledge and its Impact’, in Grouws, D.A. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning”: 147–64. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
    Fisher, E. (1996) “Distinctive features of pupil–pupil classroom talk and their relationship to learning: How discursive exploration might be encouraged”. Language and Education, 7, 239–257.
    Flavell, J.H. (1976) “Metacognitive Aspects of Problem Solving”, in Resnick (Ed.) The Nature of Intelligence, (pp. 231–235). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Flavell, J.H. (1977) Cognitive Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
    Furr, G.C. (2003) “‘Paperless Classroom’ to ‘Deep Reading’: Five Stages in Internet Pedagogy” in The Technology Source Archives, originally published in The Technology Source (http://ts.mivu.org/) as Grover C. Furr III “From ‘Paperless Classroom’ to ‘Deep Reading’: Five Stages in Internet Pedagogy”. http://technologysource.org/article/from_paperless_class-room_to_deep_reading/ (Accessed 6.11.06)
    Gage, N. (1985) Hard Gains in the Soft Sciences: The Case for PedagogyCEDR Monograph Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa.
    Galton, M. (200) Integrating Theory and Practice: Teachers' Perspectives on Educational Research. Paper given in parallel session of the first TLRP conference 9–10 November 2000).
    Gardner, H. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
    Hammond, M. (2004) “The Peculiarities of Teaching Information and Communication Technology as a Subject: A Study of Trainee and New ICT Teachers in Secondary Schools”, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 13 (1) 29–42.
    Hitchams (2006) Synagogues: http://www.hitchams.suffolk.sch.uk/synagogue/index.htm (Accessed 20.10.06)
    Holland, J.H., Holyoak, K.J., Nisbett, R.E. and Thagard, P.R. (1986) Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning and Discovery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Johnson-Laird, P. (1983) Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness. Cambridge (USA): Harvard University Press.
    Jonassen, D.H., Peck, K.L., and Wilson, B.G. (1999) Learning with Technology: A constructivistic perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
    Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning. CUP: Cambridge.
    Lewisham (undated) “Back to the playground': The website that gives information about Skipping Rhymes And Playtime Games”: http://ecs.lewisham.gov.uk/youthspace/ca/Rosieskip/skippin-gone.htm (Accessed 12.11.06)
    McBer, H. (2000) Research into Teacher Effectiveness: A Model of Teacher Effectiveness Report to the Department for Education and Employment. London: DfEE.
    Mayer, R.E. (1983) Thinking: Problem Solving and Cognition. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
    Mercer, N. (1994) “The quality of talk in children's joint activity at the computer”, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 10, 24–32.
    Mortimore, P. (1999) Understanding Pedagogy and Its Impact on Learning. Paul Chapman: London.
    Mosely, J. (1998) Quality Circle Time in the Primary Classroom: Your Essential Guide to Enhancing Self-Esteem, Self-Discipline and Positive Relationships. Cambridge: LDA.
    National Statistics (2006) Office for National Statistics: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=8 (Accessed 24.09.06)
    NC Online (undated) Access to the Non-Statutory National Framework for RE: http://www.nc.uk.net/webdav/servlet/XRM (Accessed 14.07.06)
    North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) (1996) Plugging In: Choosing and Using Educational Technology: http://www.ncrel.org/
    North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) (undated) New Times Demand New Ways of Learninghttp://www.ncrel.org/ (Accessed 06.06.05)
    Phillips, T. (1990) “Structuring context for exploratory talk”, in D.Wray (Ed.), Talking and Listening (pp. 60–72). Leamington Spa: Scholastic.
    Piaget, J. and Inhelder, B. (1969) The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books.
    Pritchard, A. (2005) Learning on the Net: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning in Primary Classrooms. London: David Fulton.
    QCA (1999) The National Curriculum: http://www.nc.uk.net/ (Accessed 10.10.06)
    QCA (1999) The National Curriculum for Design and Technology (Programme of Study for Key Stage 2) London: QCA. Also at http://www.nc.uk.net/ (Accessed 11.10.06)
    QCA (1997–2006) RE at key stages 1 and 2 (Year 1) Unit 1F: What can we learn from visiting a church?: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/religion/rel1f/
    QCA (undated) History at key stages 1 and 2 Unit 9: What Was it Like for Children in the Second World War?: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/history/his9/?view=get (Accessed 17.7.06)
    Quia (2006) http://www.quia.com (Accessed 21.09.06)
    Reynolds, D. (1998) “Teacher Effectiveness”, Presentation at the Teacher Training Agency Corporate Plan Launch 1998–2001. London: TTA.
    Rodrigues, S. (1997) ‘Fitness for Purpose: a glimpse at where, why and how to use information technology in science lessons’, Australian Science Teachers Journal, 43 (2) 33–9.
    Rumelhart, D.E. and Norman, D.A. (1976). Accretion, turning and restructuring: three modes of learning. (Report no. 7602).(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED134902).
    Schank, R.C. (1975) Conceptual Information Processing. New York: Elsevier.
    Selinger, M. (2001) “Setting Authentic Tasks Using the Internet in Leask, M. (ed.) (2001) Issues in Teaching Using ICT” (96–104). London: Routledge Falmer.
    Sewell, D. (1990) New tools for New Minds. Harvester Wheatsheaf: London.
    Simon, B. (1994) The State and Educational Change: Essays in the History of Education of Pedagogy. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Somekh, B. (2000) “New technology and learning: policy and practice in the UK, 1980–2010”, Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 5 (1): 19–37
    Tsang, H. and McCracken, J. (2004) The Role for Rich Multimedia Learning Proceeding of Computers and Advanced Technology in Education (CATE) Kauai, Hawaii. Available at: http://www.actapress.com/PDFViewer.aspx?paperId=17053 (Accessed 12.11.06)
    TTA (1999) Ways Forward with ICT: Effective Pedagogy using Information and Communications Technology in Literacy and Numeracy in Primary Schools. London: TTA.
    Varian, H. (undated) http://www.kincumber.com/howbig.htm (Accessed 08.11.06) (University of California at Berkeley).
    Webb, M.E. (2002) ‘Pedagogical Reasoning: Issues and Solutions for the Teaching and Learning of ICT in Secondary Schools”, Education and Information Technologies, 7 (3) 237–55.
    Webquest UK (undated) http://www.webquestuk.org.uk/ (Accessed 16.10.03)
    Woods, P. (1996) Researching the Art of Teaching: ethnography for educational use. London: Routledge.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website