Effective Observation in Social Work Practice


Maureen O'Loughlin & Steve O'Loughlin

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Editors and Contributors

    Maureen O'Loughlin has been an independent social work consultant with substantial experience working with children and families as a social worker and a guardian ad litem prior to becoming an academic. After leaving the University of Leeds she undertook independent assessments for court proceedings in a variety of areas for a number of years; she continues her interest in children and families through chairing adoption and fostering panels for local authorities and the Independent Reviewing Mechanism.

    Steve O'Loughlin is a registered social worker with over 30 years’ experience. He now works as an independent social work consultant. He currently acts as a tutor for qualifying students and as an advocate for carers and young people. He has experience in fostering and adoption. Steve is committed to black issues and to furthering the interests of black and minority ethnic children and families.

    Jackie Hughes is a senior lecturer at the University of Huddersfield where she is placement coordinator for the social work courses. She is a registered social worker and has been involved in social work education for many years. Jackie has worked with the Joseph Rowntree Foundation on housing issues for families with disabled children, and with the National Development Team on short breaks for children with learning disabilities and complex health needs.

    Bronwyn Roberts is a senior lecturer at the University of Huddersfield where she is course leader for the BSc and Diploma in Learning Disability Nursing. Prior to this she worked for the NHS for 25 years. Bronwyn has worked with people with a wide range of disabilities, family members, carers and friends. At present she is a governor at Calderstones, a specialist hospital for forensic care where she is working with service users to influence strategic development. However, her main focus is, and has always been, learning to communicate with people who are non verbal.

    Nicky Ryden has recently retired from work as a part-time tutor on social work courses and as a social worker. Nicky worked in statutory social work settings from 1974 to 1997. Between 1997 and 2014 she worked as an independent social worker, practice educator and tutor on social work qualifying and post-qualifying courses. Nicky has successfully completed research for a PhD (2009) and contributed to research on family support and to the evaluation of services for looked after children.

    Series Editor's Preface

    Surveillance and the power of gaze are often highlighted in contemporary society for their sinister connotations. For instance, in the UK one cannot walk along any town or city street without noticing the CCTV cameras positioned on street lamps; recorded announcements at train stations, on trains themselves and in a variety of public spaces inform us that we are being recorded, usually stating this is for our ‘own safety’, failing to acknowledge the intention to control behaviour and to increase self-monitoring and conformity.

    So, why a book on observation as a positive tool to enhance social work practice? Social workers are clearly involved in some of the social monitoring activities that are promoted by ‘surveillance society’ as set out above, but does this imply a sinister ‘Big Brother’ approach to social work in the UK; are we ‘watching you’? This edited collection acknowledges the need to observe drawing out the constructive need towards understanding rather than controlling, to gaining insight and standing in the contexts of the people with whom social workers practise.

    In a world where surveillance is the norm, we can sometimes fail consciously to observe others and ourselves and thereby fail to gain this deeper understanding of human situations and events. It is these important skills that the authors make explicit and challenge social work students to deepen their appreciation of the world around them and the contexts inhabited by their service users.

    This book re-establishes an important contribution to learning from which students, their service users and ultimately society should benefit.

    Jonathan Parker Director, Centre of Social Work, Sociology & Social Policy, School of Health & Social Care, Bournemouth University


    This book is dedicated to all those who are ‘observed’ and to those who seek to observe with openness and respect. A special thanks for the hard work of all the contributors, particularly Nicky, without whom it would not have been written.


    Observation is a key part of social work practice; it provides workers with a source of information that informs their interactions, assessment and analysis and is an essential tool for social work practitioners. Observation underpins all social work practice and is an essential skill that practitioners need to continually develop as part of their ongoing learning. Serious case reviews and situations in residential care, for example, in the Winterbourne unit, have highlighted when workers have failed to observe signs of distress and harm, often because their focus has been distracted, leaving vulnerable children and adults at risk of serious harm or even death.

    The development of observational skills offers the opportunity to identify, understand, record and analyse what is seen, which links in to the worker's assessment, decision-making processes and their planning of interventions. This book will provide an introduction to the theory of observation. It will discuss key approaches and methods and address the development of individual skills through considering how to observe, communication, recording, group work, reflection and development. Theoretical approaches will include the target child approach, tracking, a psychodynamic approach such as the Tavistock method, event sampling and checklists, as well as participant and non-participant observation.

    The book will also consider the ethics of observation and how this links to social work values and human rights.

    Social workers believe that the work they do makes a difference and that they can make a difference. In order to do so they must have the necessary knowledge, skills and values to achieve this objective. This book will extend and enhance their understanding of observation as a key social work skill.

    Each chapter will highlight relevant professional standards, with case studies being used to highlight aspects of observation throughout. This book is intended to be used by social work degree students and social work educators, as well as professional practitioners.

    Chapter 1 focuses on the professional roles and responsibilities of social workers including discussion of the ethical considerations of observing and why we actually observe service users. It will include an overview of perception and objectivity and a discussion of the impact of values and issues of interpretation. It will also discuss data protection, freedom of information and ‘property’ considerations.

    Chapter 2 introduces the principal approaches to observation and discusses their strengths and weaknesses (for example, time and event samples, checklists, tracking, media, etc.) as well as what contribution the different methods might be able to make to the work. It will use some exercises to help develop the requisite skills needed for observation. It will help practitioners come to decisions about the best approach for the specific circumstances they want to observe.

    Chapter 3 considers some of the practical techniques for the observation of service users and the issues that arise when observing very young and older people. Two specific styles of observation will be explored and the chapter will discuss how observations can enhance our understanding of actions through the application of theory. Case studies will be used to demonstrate situations where observation is significant to the assessment of risk and need. This chapter will raise the use of telecare for older people as another aspect of observation together with the use of CCTV in residential and home settings and the ethical issues that might arise.

    Chapter 4 considers observation when working with children and adults with disabilities. It brings the perspectives of both social work and learning disability nursing into its discussions, to encourage the consideration of different professional backgrounds alongside the views of disabled children and adults and their families. The focus is primarily on those with profound and multiple disabilities or complex needs; the chapter uses case examples to help develop skills in both observation and communication. The chapter also discusses the values that underpin work with disabled people and their families, as well as the different models of disability. The views of disabled people, the importance of language and how this needs to inform practice are central to the chapter.

    Chapter 5 introduces observation as an integral part of training and development for social workers in the UK. It discusses the role of observation of new entrants to social work as part of the process of judging competence in social work skills. It then goes on to consider observation in relation to qualified social workers who will be observed by peers, assessors and managers in a work culture that emphasises continued development and accountability. The chapter also discusses the use of ‘shadowing’ as an introduction to social work settings, the use of observation in placement, and briefly considers how observation might be utilised post qualifying as a tool for development and appraisal of performance. Finally, this chapter considers some observational approaches in social care management.

    Chapter 6 provides a reflective discussion of observations in a local authority secure children's home (LASCH) of a changing group of young people and a group of staff. A description of the purposes of, and services provided by, the LASCH gives context to the discussion. The chapter provides the reader with a detailed account of observation in action and the impact of technology in this particular contained situation. The chapter also discusses elements of care and control and how CCTV has transformed both the care and control that is given and received.

    This book has been mapped to the basic Professional Capabilities Framework for Social Workers in England and the corresponding HCPC Standards of Proficiency and will help you to develop the appropriate standards at the right level. These are referred to collectively as Professional Standards in the book and by their titles. In further detail they are:

    • Professionalism: Identify and behave as a professional social worker committed to professional development.
    • Values and ethics: Apply social work ethical principles and values to guide professional practice.
    • Diversity: Recognise diversity and apply anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive principles in practice.
    • Justice: Advance human rights and promote social justice and economic wellbeing.
    • Knowledge: Apply knowledge of social sciences, law and social work practice theory.
    • Judgement: Use judgement and authority to intervene with individuals, families and communities to promote independence, provide support and prevent harm, neglect and abuse.
    • Critical reflection and analysis: Apply critical reflection and analysis to inform and provide a rationale for professional decision-making.
    • Contexts and organisations: Engage with, inform, and adapt to changing contexts that shape practice. Operate effectively within your own organisational frameworks and contribute to the development of services and organisations. Operate effectively within multi-agency and inter-professional settings.
    • Professional leadership: Take responsibility for the professional learning and development of others through supervision, mentoring, assessing, research, teaching, leadership and management.

    References to these standards will be made throughout the text and you will find a diagram of the Professional Capability Framework in Appendix 1.

    In addition to the basic Professional Capabilities Framework, the College of Social Work is introducing Professional Capabilities Statements in various areas of social work practice that will also impact on the expectations of how practitioners function. Further information about these can be found at www.tcsw.org.uk.

  • Conclusion

    This book has sought to introduce you to observation as a key part in social work practice, highlighting that it provides you with a source of information that can inform your interactions, assessments and analysis, and is an essential tool for social work practitioners. It advances the idea that observation underpins all social work practice and is an essential skill that practitioners need to continually develop as part of their ongoing learning. There have been many reported incidences when social workers have failed to observe signs of distress and harm, often because their focus has been distracted, leaving vulnerable children and adults at risk of serious harm or even death; there is much less written about when observation has informed and impacted to improve a situation for service users and their families.

    The development of observational skills offers the opportunity to identify, understand, record and analyse what is seen which links in to the worker's assessment, decision-making processes and their planning of interventions. This book provides an introduction to the theory of observation and how to observe.

    Chapter 1 helped you to begin to address the question ‘Why observe?’ It introduced the professional roles and responsibilities of observation, and began the discussion of ethical considerations that apply when observation is being used in a professional context. It also introduced you to the functions of perception and objectivity in observation as well as raising issues relating to data protection and intellectual property that you need to be mindful of in your use of observation. The chapter emphasised the need to involve service users in discussions and to share observations where this is appropriate; it also acknowledges there are sometimes difficult situations when, because of safeguarding issues, observations might be covert.

    Chapter 2 considered methods of observation and how you might use them in practice. The effect of being either a participant or non-participant observer was discussed and the uses of both naturalistic or structured approaches were compared. There was some discussion of the history of how different approaches have developed, together with the ways those approaches have influenced practice. Exercises introduced some of the challenges associated with negotiating the planning and execution of an observation as well as briefly considering how the material from the observation might be analysed.

    Chapter 3 considered some practical techniques for observing very young as well as older people. Two styles of observation were explored with the subsequent discussion of what the observations showed demonstrating how the application of theory extends and consolidates understanding of the action. The case studies presented situations where observation was significant to the assessment of risk and need, and made suggestions for how observation could extend the depth and quality of the assessment. The use of telecare for older people was raised – another aspect of observation that needs to be carefully managed and to be ethically used if it is to enhance people's lives.

    Chapter 4 emphasised that knowing the individual, their skills and abilities, communication methods and how they interact with and perceive their environment is essential if practitioners are to be effective in helping people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. It made clear that practitioners will need to take time, using keen observations, monitoring and recording all behaviours and working in partnership with all significant individuals and teams if they are to be effective. It highlighted the need to be creative in cultivating communications and to be sensitive to attempts at communications, as this can be rewarded by a two-way conversation and the development of enriching relationships.

    Chapter 5 discussed the centrality of observational skills to the practice and management of social work. It considered the necessity of developing observation as a means of obtaining feedback on personal and organisational performance in order that service provision is enhanced. The chapter demonstrated the importance of feedback in developing self-awareness and the significance of reflecting on process, giving examples of how this could be achieved. The chapter acknowledged and emphasised the need to make time for reflection and review as a key professional skill.

    Chapter 6 considered observation in a particular contained residential environment, giving the opportunity to focus on elements of care and control and the importance and relevance of observation to these. The use and impact of CCTV were discussed and the ongoing debate between privacy and security recognised.

    This book provides an introduction to the theory of observation and how to observe. The writers acknowledge that in the changing world of social work there are many different priorities but with an understanding of the key role of observation and the impact it has on communication and the needs of vulnerable people we believe that practitioners will have additional tools to provide them with the foundation to become analytical and reflective practitioners.

    Professional Capabilities Framework

    Professional Capabilities Framework Diagram Reproduced with Permission of the College of Social Work


    Age UK ( 2010 ) Technology and Older People Evidence Review. London: Age UK.
    Ainsworth F. , and Fulcher L.C. ( 1981 ) Group Care for Children: Concepts and Issues. London: Tavistock.
    Ainsworth M. , Bell S.M. , and Stayton D.J. ( 1971 ) Individual differences in strange-situation behaviour of one year olds. in Schaffer HR (ed), The Origins of Human Behaviour. London and New York: Academic Press.
    Alderson P. ( 1995 ) Listening to Children: Ethics and Social Research. Barkingside: Barnado's.
    Association of Video Interaction Guidance UK (AVIGuk) available at www.videointeractionguidance.net/about.html
    Banks S. ( 1995 ) Ethics and Values in Social Work. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Barnes C. ( 1992 ) Disabling Imagery and the Media. Halifax: British Council of Disabled People/Ryburn Publishing.
    Beech R. , and Roberts D. ( 2008 ) Assistive technology and older people, SCIE research briefing 28. London: SCIE.
    Beek M. , and Schofield G. ( 2001 ) Foster carers’ perspectives on permanency. Adoption and Fostering, 26(2), 1427. London: BAAF.
    Bentovim A. , and Cox A. ( 2000 ) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families: The Family Pack of Questionnaires and Scales. London: The Stationery Office.
    Beresford B. , Sloper P. , Baldwin S. , and Newman T. ( 1996 ) What Works in Services for Families with a Disabled Child? Barkingside: Barnardo's.
    Bolton G. ( 2010 ) Reflective Practice: Writing and Professional Development, 3rd edition. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington, DC: Sage Publications.
    Bowlby J. ( 1978 ) Attachment and Loss, Volume 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.
    Brizendine L. ( 2007 ) The Female Brain. London: Bantam Books.
    Caldwell P. ( 2005 ) Creative Conversations. Brighton: Pavilion Publishers.
    Caldwell P. ( 2007 ) From Isolation to Intimacy: Making Friends without Words. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Caldwell P. ( 2012 ) Delicious Conversations: Reflections on Autism, Intimacy and Communication. Brighton: Pavilion Publishers.
    Cameron L. , and Murphy J. ( 2002 ) Enabling young people with a learning disability to make choices at a time of transition. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3), 105112.
    Carefull S. ( 2014 ) It's time to bring telecare into the mainstream. Guardian News, 20 June 2014.
    Carpenter J. ( 1993 ) Working together. In Carpenter J , and Treacher A (eds), Using Family Therapy in the 90s. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, USA: Blackwells.
    Cavet J. , and Grove N. ( 2005 ) Multimedia Technology for People with Profound and Multiple Impairments: An evaluation of a Mencap pilot project using multimedia profiling. Mencap.
    Cogher L. ( 2010 ) Communication with children and young people. in Grant G , Ramcharan P , Flynn M , and Richardson M (eds), Learning Disability: A Life Cycle Approach, 2nd edition. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    College of Social Work ( 2012 ) Professional Capabilities Framework. College of Social Work.
    College Collin , and Lipscomb D. ( 2013 ) Available online at www.iws2.collin.edu/lipscomb/16_week_course/theoretical_perspectives_outline.htm. Accessed 18.9.13.
    Connors C. , and Stalker K. ( 2003 ) The Views and Experiences of Disabled Children and Their Siblings: A Positive Outlook. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Contact a Family. www.cafamily.org.uk/professionals/research. Accessed 10.6.14.
    Cox A. , and Walker S. ( 2002 ) The HOME Inventory. Brighton: Pavilion Publishers.
    Croisdale Appleby D. ( 2014 ) Revisioning Social Work Education: An Independent Review. London: DoH. Available online at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/social-work-education
    Darlington Y. , and Scott D. ( 2002 ) Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Davys D. , and Jones V. ( 2007 ) Peer observation: a tool for continuing professional development. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14(11), 489493.
    Department for Education and Employment ( 2000 ) Guidance on the Education of Children and Young People in Public Care. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (DoH) ( 2000 ) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families. Norwich: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2009 ) Valuing People Now. London: DH Publications.
    Ellis-Peterson H. ( 2014 ) The new surveillance state takes to a bigger stage. Guardian, 8 May 2014, p. 18.
    Emerson E. , Baines S. , Allerton L. , and Welch V. ( 2013 ) Health inequalities and people with learning disabilities in the UK: 2011. Tizard Learning Disability Review, 132.
    Fawcett M. ( 1996 ) Learning through Child Observation. London and New York: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Ferguson H. ( 2011 ) Child Protection Practice. Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Fitton P. ( 2000 ) Listen to Me: Communicating the Needs of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Flynn M. , and Citarella V. ( 2012 ) Winterbourne View Hospital. A serious case review. Summary. South Gloucestershire Council accessed online at http://hosted.southglos.gov.uk/wv/summary.pdf
    Gilchrist J. ( 2007 ) The challenge of practice learning today. In Tovey W. (ed.), The Post Qualifying Handbook for Social Workers. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Gilligan C. ( 1996 ) In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
    Goldbart J. , and Caton S. ( 2010 ) Communication and People with the Most Complex Needs. London: Mencap.
    Grant G. , Ramcharan P. , Flynn M. , and Richardson M. ( 2010 ) Learning Disability: A Life Cycle Approach. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Gregory R.L. ( 2007 ) Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Greig A. , and Taylor J. ( 1999 ) Doing Research with Children. London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage.
    Grove N. ( 2003 ) Multimedia profiling: a person centred tool for people with profound disabilities. PMLD LINK, 15(3), 46, 5–7.
    Hammersley-Fletcher L. , and Orsmund P. ( 2005 ) Reflecting on reflective practices within peer observation. Studies in Higher Education, 30(2), 213224.
    Holland S. ( 2004 ) Child and Family Assessment in Social Work. London: Sage.
    Horwath, J (ed.) ( 2010 ) The Child's World: The Comprehensive Guide to Assessing Children in Need. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    House of Commons ( 2008 ) A Life Like Any Other? Human Rights of Adults with Learning Disabilities. London: The Stationery Office Limited.
    Hussain Y. , Atkin K. , and Ahmad W. ( 2002 ) South Asian Disabled Young People and Their Families. Bristol: Policy Press: JRF.
    Intellectual Property Office ( 2007 ) Intellectual Property Explained. Newport: The Stationery Office.
    Johns R. ( 2011 ) Using the Law in Social Work. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Jordan R. ( 2013 ) Autism with Severe Learning Disabilities. London: Souvenir Press.
    Kolb D.A. ( 1984 ) Experiential Learning: Experience as a Source of Learning and Development. London: Prentice Hall.
    Laming H. ( 2009 ) The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report (HC 330), London: TSO. Available at: http://publications.everychildmatters.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/HC-330.pdf
    Le Riche P. ( 2006 ) Practising observation in shadowing: curriculum innovation and learning outcomes in the BA Social Work. Social Work Education: The International Journal, 25(8), 771784.
    Le Riche P. , and Tanner K. ( 2000 ) Observation in social work. In Davies M (ed.), Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Work. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    Limbrick P. (ed.) ( 2007 ) Family-Centred Support for Children with Disabilities and Special Needs. Clifford, Herefordshire: Interconnections.
    Luft J. , and Ingham H. ( 1955 ) The Johari Window, a graphic model of interpersonal awareness. Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development. Los Angeles: UCLA.
    Lunsky L. , Tint A. , Robinson S. , Gordeko M. , and Ouellette-Kuntz H. ( 2014 ) System-wide information about family carers of adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities: a scoping review of the literature. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(1), 818.
    Lyon D. ( 2001 ) The Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University.
    Mack B. ( 1999 ) The contribution of infant observation to therapeutic social work with a child in need. Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and its Applications, 2(2), 102115.
    Marchant R. ( 2001 ) Working with disabled children. In Foley et al (eds), Children in Society: Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Marks D. ( 1999 ) Dimensions of oppression: theorising the embodied subject. Disability and Society, 14(5), 611626.
    Martin K. , and Jeffes J. ( 2011 ) Safeguarding Children Peer Reviews Programme: Learning and Recommendations. Slough: NFER.
    Mason J. ( 2002 ) Qualitative Research, 2nd edition. London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage.
    Mather G. ( 2009 ) Foundations of Sensation and Perception, 2nd edition. Hove: Psychology Press.
    McDonald K.E. , and Kidney C.A. ( 2012 ) What is right? Ethics in intellectual disabilities research. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(1), 2739.
    McMahon L. , and Farnfield S. ( 2004 ) Too close in or too far out: learning to hold the role of observer. Journal of Social Work Practice, 18(1), 239246.
    Meek H.W. ( 2005 ) Promoting self awareness. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 75(3), 3358.
    Mental Health Foundation ( 1997 ) Don't Forget Us: Children with Learning Disabilities and Severe Challenging Behaviour. Report of a Committee set up by the Mental Health Foundation.
    Middleton L. ( 1996 ) Making a Difference: Social Work with Disabled Children. Birmingham: Venture Press.
    Milhailidies A. , Cockburn A. , Longley C. , and Boger J. ( 2008 ) The acceptability of home monitoring technology among community dwelling older adults and baby boomers. Assistive Technology, 20(1), 112.
    Moore C. ( 2004 ) George and Sam. England: Viking Publishers.
    Morris J. ( 1998 ) Still Missing? The Experience of Disabled Children and Young People Living Away From Their Families. York: JRF Who Cares Trust?
    Mukhergee S. , Beresford B. , and Sloper P. ( 1999 ) Unlocking Key Working: An Analysis and Evaluation of Key Worker Services for Families with Disabled Children. Bristol: JRF: Policy Press.
    Munro E. ( 2011 ) The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report. A Child Centred System. London: The Stationery Office.
    Murphy E. , and Dingwall R. ( 2011 ) The ethics of ethnography. in Atkinson P , Coffey A , Delamont S , Lofland J , and Lofland L (eds), Handbook of Ethnography. London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage.
    Myron R. , Gillespie S. , Swift P. , and Williams T. ( 2008 ) Whose Decision? London: The Mental Health Foundation.
    Nairey M. ( 2014 ) Making the Education of Social Workers Consistently Effective. Available to download at: www.gov.uk/government/publications
    Nind M. , and Hewett D. ( 2001 ) A Practical Guide to Intensive Interaction. Kidderminster: BILD Publications.
    Nutbrown C. , and Carter C. ( 2010 ) The tools of assessment: watching and learning. in Pugh G , and Duffy B (eds), Contemporary Issues in the Early Years, 5th edition. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington, DC: Sage.
    Ofsted ( 2014 ) http://www.ofsted.gov.uk. Accessed 1.8.14.
    Oliver M. ( 2011 ) Social Work with Disabled People. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    O'Neill T. ( 2001 ) Children in Secure Accommodation. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Panorama ( 2014 ) Behind Closed Doors: Elderly Care Exposed. BBC 30 April 2014.
    Payne M. ( 2005 ) Modern Social Work Theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Porter J. , Ouvrey C. , Morgan M. , and Downs C. ( 2001 ) Interpreting the communications of people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disability, 29(1), 1216.
    Quitak N. ( 2004 ) Difficulties in holding the role of observer. Journal of Social Work Practice, 18(1), 247253.
    RCSLT (Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists) ( 2013 ) Five Good Communication Standards. London: RCSLT.
    Regnard C. , Reynolds J. , Watson B. , Matthews D. , Gibson L. , and Clarke C. ( 2007 ) Understanding distress in people with severe communication difficulties: developing and assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(4), 277292.
    Roberts B. ( 2010 ) The physical and sensory needs of children with learning disabilities. in Grant G , Ramacharan P , Flynn M , and Richardson M (eds), Learning Disability: A Life Cycle Approach. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Robson C. ( 1993 ) Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researchers. Oxford, UK and Cambridge USA: Blackwell.
    Sampson A. ( 2013 ) Poems to Learn by Heart. London: Michael O'Mara Books Ltd.
    Schofield G. , Biggart L. , Ward E. , Scaife V. , Dodsworth J. , Haynes A. , and Larsson B. ( 2014 ) Looked After Children and Offending: Reducing Risk and Promoting Resilience. London: British Agencies for Adoption and Fostering.
    Senge P.M. ( 1990 ) The Fifth Discipline. London: Century, Business.
    Shardlow S.M. , and Doel M. (eds) 2002 Learning to Practice Social Work: International Approaches. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Sharman C. , Cross W. , and Vennis D. ( 2012 ) Observing Children and Young People. London: Continuum.
    Simmonds J. ( 1998 ) Observing the unthinkable in residential care for children. in Riche P Le , and Tanner K (eds), Observation and its Application to Social Work: Rather Like Breathing. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Skills for Care/TCSW (n.d.) 360 Degree Development. Supporting the Development of Social Work Managers. Available at: http://sw-360.skillsforcare.org.uk. Accessed 14.5.14.
    Smith M. ( 2009 ) Rethinking Residential Care. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Stalker S. , and Connors C. ( 2010 ) Children with learning disabilities talking about their everyday lives. in Grant G , Ramacharan P , Flynn M , and Richardson M (eds), Learning Disability: A Life Cycle Approach. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Swain J. , French S. , Barnes C. , and Oliver M. (eds) ( 2014 ) Disabling Barriers: Enabling Environments. London: Sage.
    Sylva K. , Roy C. , and Painter M. ( 1980 ) Childwatching at Playgroup and Nursery School. London: Grant MacIntyre.
    Tanner K. , and Le Riche P. ( 1999 ) Work in progress: the contribution of observation to the development of good practice and evaluation. in Shaw I , and Lishman J (eds), Evaluation and Social Work Practice. London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage.
    Thurman S. ( 2009 ) Communication Is a Human Right. London: Bild.
    Tizard B. , and Hughes M. ( 1984 ) Young Children Learning: Talking and Thinking at Home and at School. London: Fontana Press.
    Tovee M. ( 1996 ) An Introduction to the Visual System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Trevithick P. ( 2012 ) Social Work Skills and Knowledge: A Practice Handbook, 3rd edition. Maidenhead and New York: Open University Press and McGraw Hill.
    Triangle ( 2001 ) Two Way Street DVD. www.triangle.org.uk.
    Triangle ( 2012 ) Communication Systems. www.triangle.org.uk.
    Trowell J. , and Miles G. ( 1991 ) The contribution of observation training to professional development in social work. Journal of Social Work Practice, 5(1), 5160.
    Trowell J. , and Miles G. ( 2004 ) The contribution of observational training in professional development in social work. Journal of Social Work Practice, 18(1), 4960.
    Turnbull J. ( 2007 ) Learning Disability Nursing. England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Van de Gaag A. ( 2012 ) Standards of Proficiency. Health and Care Professions Council.
    Vik K. , and Hafting M. ( 2006 ) Video interaction guidance offered to mothers with postnatal depression: experiences from a pilot study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60(3), 234238.
    Watson N. , Shakespeare T. , Cunningham-Burley S. , and Barnes C. ( 1999 ) Life as a disabled child: a qualitative study of young people's experiences and perspectives. Final report of an ESRC-funded study. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
    Wilson K. ( 1992 ) The place of observation in social work training. Journal of Social Work Practice, 6(1), 3747.
    Winnicott D. ( 1971 ) Playing and Reality. Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Winnicott D.W. ( 2001 ) Playing and Reality. Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge Taylor Francis Group.
    Woodcock Ross J. ( 2011 ) Specialist Communication Skills for Social Workers: Focusing on Service Users’ Needs. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Woods S. , Gangadharan S. , Tyrer F. , Gumber R. , Devapriam J. , Hiremath A. , and Bhaumik S. ( 2014 ) Success and challenges in the implementation of care pathways in an intellectual disability service: health professionals’ experiences. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disability, 11(1), 17.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website