Educating Students on the Autistic Spectrum: A Practical Guide

Books

Martin Hanbury

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Education at SAGE

    SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.

    Our education publishing includes:

    • accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
    • inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom
    • authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    Those of us fortunate enough to work with children and young people learn something new each day. Generally, it is the youngster who leads our development as practitioners and our progress depends largely on our ability to respond to what we have learnt. I hope I have listened to those I have worked with and would like to thank them for all they have taught me. Equally, the families and carers of these children and young people are a special group of people. Their resilience, creativity and focus on their children's needs have been both inspirational and informative. Again, I would like to thank them all.

    I have faced the challenges we all encounter in education alongside colleagues whose skill, expertise and commitment has deepened my faith in humankind. Many colleagues have supported the development of this second edition and I would like to thank especially Graham Birtwell, Jill Breden, Francine Brower, Debi Brown, Barry Carpenter, Keith Cox, Anne Murray, Tony Newman, Steve Pyott, Lisa Sharrock, Jim Taylor and Lucy Wood, for their positive attitudes towards this project.

    Similarly, I have benefited enormously from the encouragement and advice of my editor, Jude Bowen. This second edition has provided me with the opportunity to explore this wonderful field in more depth; a gift I thank her for.

    Finally, I must thank Theresa for coffee and cake, and Megan, Tim, Patrick and Fran for keeping the noise down – well sometimes!

    About the Author

    Martin Hanbury is a Head Teacher and author who has worked in the field of autism for over 25 years in a variety of roles including carer, teaching assistant, teacher and, latterly, school leader.

    Martin holds Master's degrees in Special Education, Educational Management and Research Methodology and a Doctorate in Educational Leadership. He has written Educating Students on the Autistic Spectrum (2005) and Positive Behaviour Strategies to Support Children and Young People with Autism (2007) for SAGE alongside a number of other chapters and articles related to special educational needs and autism. Martin is currently researching the accessibility of educational, health and social services for students with learning difficulties and disabilities.

    Martin contributes to a number of university courses focused on autism, and delivers training in the field on a regular and frequent basis to a variety of agencies. Martin has been an active participant in the National Autistic Society's accreditation programme for many years.

    Downloadable Materials

    This book is supported by a wealth of resources that can be downloaded from http://www.sagepub.co.uk/martinhanbury for use in your setting. A full list of the resources available is below:

    Figures

    • 1.1 The triad of impairment 9
    • 2.1 Autism: three waves of impact 16
    • 3.1 Observation checklist 29
    • 4.1 Same challenge, different child 40
    • 4.2 Flowchart for risk assessment 45
    • 4.3 Needs checklist 49
    • 4.4 Grading needs 50
    • 4.5 Priority 50
    • 4.6 Hierarchy 50
    • 4.7 Proportion 50
    • 4.8 Behaviour support plan 53
    • 5.1 Student profile 57
    • 5.2 Supporting communication: dos 67
    • 5.3 Supporting communication: don'ts 67
    • 6.1 Transition area 83
    • 6.2 Schedules 85
    • 7.1 Complexity theory and complex learners 97
    • 7.2 Reflection: trans-disciplinary practice 99
    • 7.3 Self-evaluation 103
    • 7.4 The double helix curriculum model 104
    • 7.5 Linking the strands 106
    • 7.6 Planning template: English 106
    • 7.7 Planning template: Mathematics 107
    • 7.8 Planning template: Science 107
    • 7.9 Holistic learning programme 108
  • Epilogue

    In putting together the second edition of this book it has become ever clearer to me that our duty as practitioners is to be constantly seeking to evolve and adapt to an ever-changing learning context. The students we teach, the colleagues we work alongside, the legislation we are operating under and our knowledge of learning are in a constant state of flux. Against this backdrop of change the only thing we can remain sure of is the need to change ourselves by better understanding the people we work with and sharing that understanding with colleagues and families.

    We have come a long way in a short time which is a testament to how the field is growing and learning together. Long may it continue as there is a long way to go.

    MartinHanbury

    Appendix: INSET Materials

    Slide 1

    What is autism?

    • Autism spectrum condition is the term used to describe a range of behaviourally defined neurodevelopmental conditions.
    • They are characterised by impairments in
      • Social interaction
      • Social communication and language development
      • A restricted repertoire of interests, behaviours and activities.
    • Sensory abnormalities and unusual interest in some sensations are common.
    • A lack of imaginative play indicates an underlying difficulty with generation of ideas that is highly relevant in the development of understanding of other people and other situations.
    • All of these characteristics can be seen in varying degrees of severity.
    • As a developmental condition, the manifestation of autism for any one individual will vary
    • across the lifespan
    • with maturation
    • according to the effects of different environments
    • due to specific interventions and treatments.

    Source: Charman and Care (2004)

    Slide 2

    The triad of impairments (Wing and Gould 1979).

    • Social interaction
    • Social communication and
    • Imagination

    ‘we found that all children with “autistic features”, whether they fitted Kanner's or Asperger's descriptions or had bits and pieces of both, had in common absence or impairments of social interaction, communication and development of imagination. They also had a narrow, rigid, repetitive pattern of activities and interests. The three impairments (referred to as the ‘triad’) were shown in a wide variety of ways, but the underlying similarities were recognizable.’

    Slide 3

    Mind-blindness (Baron-Cohen 1990; 1995)

    • People with autism lack a ‘theory of mind’.
    • Theory of mind is the ability to appreciate the mental states of oneself and other people.
    • It is a prerequisite to effective functioning in social groups.
    • It is usually evident in children from around the age of 4 onwards.
    • However, children with autism seem to lack the ability to ‘think about thoughts’ (Happe 1994).
    Slide 4

    Executive function (Norman and Shallice 1980)

    • Executive function is the mechanism which enables us to move our attention

      from one activity or object to another flexibly and easily.

    • It allows us to plan strategically, solve problems and set ourselves objectives.
    • The absence of such a mechanism determines that
      • all our actions are controlled by the environment in response to cues and stimuli, leading to apparently meaningless activity
      • actions and behaviours compete for dominance in a disorganised and inconsistent manner leading to an inability to plan and execute goal generated behaviour.
    • In a school setting, this emerges as
      • highly distractible behaviour
      • dependence upon ritual and routines
      • an apparent disregard for the school timetable or the completion of tasks.
    Slide 5

    Central coherence theory (Frith 1989)

    • Natural impulse to place information into a context in order to give it meaning.
    • People with autism tend to focus on the detail rather than the whole.
    • The failure to appreciate the whole accounts for the piecemeal way in which people with autism acquire knowledge and the unusual cognitive profile presented by many people with autism.
    • Educators may detect the lack of central coherence in
      • the narrowed interests of children with autism
      • the ways in which students with autism are often unable to generalise skills
      • the way in which children with autism often display areas of relative strength described as islets of ability.
    Slide 6

    Sensory processing

    • We experience the world around us through seven sensory channels, namely
      • Visual – what we see
      • Auditory – what we hear
      • Olfactory – what we smell
      • Gustatory – what we taste
      • Tactile – what we feel
      • Vestibular – balance
      • Proprioceptory – co-ordination.
    • People with autism often experience difficulties in processing sensory stimuli.
    • People with autism can be either hyper-sensitive (over-sensitive) or hypo-sensitive (under-sensitive) to specific stimuli.
    • These difficulties can create a ‘Gestalt perception’ in which all stimuli are equally relevant.
    • In order to regulate this difficulty people with autism may ‘mono-process’ sensory stimuli.
    Slide 7
    TEACCH

    Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren

    • Lifelong programme for people with autism based on a recognition of characteristic strengths and typical impairments.
    • Structured teaching has four major components
      • Physical organisation
      • Schedules
      • Work systems
      • Task organisation.

        (Schopler and Mesibov 1995)

    • Structured teaching can be incorporated into mainstream practice through use of the four major components.

      (Mesibov and Howley 2003)

    Slide 8
    PECS

    Picture Exchange Communication System

    • Picture provides permanence of information.
    • Allows processing time which supports understanding.
    • Learner initiates communicative acts.
    • Takes the learner through six phases, namely
      • Phase One – Initiating communication
      • Phase Two – Expanding the use of pictures
      • Phase Three – Choosing the message in PECS
      • Phase Four – Introducing the sentence structure in PECS
      • Phase Five – Teaching answering simple questions
      • Phase Six – Teaching commenting.

      (Bondy and Frost 2002)

    • Appropriate for students with language as it supports comprehension and allows extension of existing skills.

    References

    American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    Asperger, H. (1944) ‘Die autistichen psychopathen im kindesalter’, Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankenheiten (Autistic Psychopathy in Childhood), 117: 76–136.
    Atwood, T. (1998) Asperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
    Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, T. and Charman, T. (2006) ‘Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP)’, The Lancet, 368(9531): 179–81.
    Baron-Cohen, S. (1990) ‘Autism: a specific cognitive disorder of “mind-blindness”’, International Review of Psychiatry, 2: 79–88.
    Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. London: Bradford Books.
    Bogdashina, O. (2003) Sensory Perceptual Issues in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: Different Sensory Experiences, Different Perceptual Worlds. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
    Bondy, A.S. and Frost, L. (2002) A Picture's Worth: PECS and Other Visual Communication Strategies in Autism. Bethesda, Washington, DC: Woodbine House.
    Campbell, R., Baron-Cohen, S. and Walker, J. (1995) ‘Do people with autism show a whole face advantage in recognition of familiar faces and their parts? A test of central coherence theory’, unpublished manuscript, University of London, Goldsmith's College.
    Charman, T. and Care, P. (2004) Mapping Autism Research. London: National Autistic Society.
    Cohen, D. and Volkmar, F. (1997) Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. New York: John Wiley.
    Cumine, V., Dunlop, J. and Stevenson, G. (2009) Autism in the Early Years: Resource Materials for Teachers. London: David Fulton.
    Department for Education (DfE) (2011) Support and Aspiration: A New Approach to Special Educational Needs and Disability. London: HMSO.
    Dunn, W. (2008) Sensory Profile. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    Frith, U. (1989) Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Frost, L.A. and Bondy, A.S. (1994) PECS: The Picture Exchange Communication System Training Manual. Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants.
    Frost, L.A. and Bondy, A.S. (2002) The Picture Exchange Communication System – Training Manual. Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Products.
    Gillberg, C. (1985) ‘Asperger's Syndrome and recurrent psychosis: a case study’, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(4): 389–97.
    Gorrod, L. (1997) My Brother is Different: A Book for Children Who Have a Brother or Sister with Autism. London: National Autistic Society.
    Gray, C. (1994a) The Social Story Book. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.
    Gray, C. (1994b) Comic Strip Conversations. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.
    Gray, C. and Leigh White, A. (2002) My Social Stories Book. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Grandin, T. (1986) Emergence Labelled Autistic. New York: Warner Books.
    Haddon, M. (2003) The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. London: Vintage Books.
    Hanbury, M. (2007) Positive Behaviour Strategies to Support Children and Young People with Autism. London, Thousand Oaks, CA and Delhi: SAGE.
    Happe, F. (1994) Autism: An Introduction to Psychological Theory. London: UCL Press.
    Howlin, P., Baron-Cohen, S. and Hadwin, J. (1999) Teaching Children with Autism to Mind-Read: A Practical Guide. Chichester: John Wiley.
    Jordan, R. and Powell, S. (1995) Understanding and Teaching Children with Autism. Chichester: John Wiley.
    Kanner, L. (1943) ‘Autistic disturbances of affective contact’, The Nervous Child, 2: 217–50.
    Lawson, W. (2000) Life Behind Glass: A Personal Account of Autism Spectrum Disorder. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
    Leslie, A. M. (1987) ‘Pretence and representation: the origins of “theory of mind”’, Psychological Review, 94: 412–26.
    Mesibov, G. and Howley, M. (2003) Accessing the Curriculum for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. London: David Fulton.
    Miller, L. (2009) Practical Behaviour Management Solutions for Children and Teens with Autism: The 5P Approach. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
    Morrison, K. (2002) School Leadership and Complexity Theory. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Moyes, R.A. (2001) Incorporating Social Goals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers and Parents of Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
    NIASA (2003) National Autism Plan for Children. London: National Autistic Society.
    Nind, M. and Hewett, D. (1994) Access to Communication: Developing the Basics of Communication with People with Severe Learning Difficulties through Intensive Interaction. London: David Fulton.
    Nind, M. and Hewett, D. (2001) A Practical Guide to Intensive Interaction. Kidderminster: BILD Publications.
    Norman, D. and Shallice, T. (1980) ‘Attention to action: willed and automatic control of behaviour’, in R.Davidson, G.Schwartz and D.Shapiro (eds), Consciousness and Selfregulation. Vol. 4. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 1–18.
    Lorenz, E.N. (1963) ‘Deterministic non periodic flow’, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Vol. 20(2): 130–41.
    Potter, C. and Whittaker, C. (2001) Enabling Communication in Children with Autism. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Prevezer, W. (1990) ‘Strategies for tuning into autism’, Therapy Weekly, 17(16), October.
    Rimland, B. (1964) Infantile Autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Robinson, S. (2008) Accredited Courses in Autism. Kidderminster: BILD.
    Sainsbury, C. (2009) Martian in the Playground.
    2nd edition
    . London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi: SAGE.
    Schopler, E. and Mesibov, G. (1995) Learning and Cognition in Autism. New York: Plenum Press.
    Scott, F.J., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P. and Brayne, C. (2002) ‘The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school aged children’, Autism 2002, 6: 9–31.
    Shah, A. and Frith, U. (1983) ‘An islet of ability in autism: a research note,’Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34: 613–20.
    Sherrat, D. and Peter, M. (2002) Developing Play and Drama in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. London: David Fulton.
    Sigman, M., Mundy, P., Ungerer, J. and Sherman, T. (1986) ‘Social interactions of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children and their caregivers’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27(5): 647–56.
    Stock Kranowitz, C. (2003) The Out-of-Sync Child Has Fun: Activities for Kids with Sensory Integration Dysfunction. New York: Perigree.
    Wall, K. (2010) Autism and Early Years Practice.
    2nd edition
    . London, Thousand Oaks, CA and Delhi: SAGE.
    Whitaker, P., Joy, H., Harley, J. and Edwards, D. (2001) Challenging Behaviour and Autism: Making Sense – Making Progress. London: National Autistic Society.
    Williams, D. (1992) Nobody Nowhere. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
    Wimpory, D. (1995) ‘Brief report: musical interaction therapy for children with autism: an evaluative case study’, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25(5): 541–52.
    Wing, L. (1996) The Autistic Spectrum. London: Constable and Robinson.
    Wing, L. and Gould, J. (1979) ‘Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: epidemiology and classification’, Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 9: 11–29.
    Wing, L. and Potter, D. (2002) ‘The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is prevalence rising?’, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8(3): 151–61.
    World Health Organization (1993) Mental Disorders: A Glossary and Guide to their Classification in Accordance with the 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website