Economic Reforms and Social Exclusion: Impact of Liberalization on Marginalized Groups in India
Publication Year: 2011
Economic Reforms and Social Exclusion is an analytical study that focuses on the socially marginalized and excluded groups in India since the onset of liberalization. It examines how the liberal economic reforms have impacted socio-economic categories—caste, tribe and religious minorities—subjecting them to further deprivation.
Case studies of handloom weavers, VRS workers and the temperance movement have awarded this study empirical reality. The book also offers a refreshing approach to the study of economic reforms through philosophical and theoretical arguments on issues like civil society, religion, caste and alienation.
Since most of the scholarly works on social exclusion are based on Western notions of ‘deprivation’ and ‘exclusion’, this work's unique focus on India lends the reader a context-specific understanding of the subject. The jargon free language makes the ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 2: Social Exclusion and the Methodological Dichotomies
- Chapter 3: Economic Reforms and the Socially Excluded Groups in India
- Chapter 4: Emergence of Caste as Property under Liberalization
- Chapter 5: Impact of Reforms on Scheduled Castes
- Chapter 6: Liberalization and the Adivasi Development
- Chapter 7: Marginalization of Rural Artisans and Muslims
- Chapter 8: Handloom Weavers under Liberalization: A Case Study
- Chapter 9: Exit Policy and the Welfare of the Working Classes
- Chapter 10: Inequity in the Development of Human Capital and Alienation in Higher Education
- Chapter 11: Public Health Services and the Poor
- Chapter 12: Civil Society Responses to Economic Reforms: A Case Study of Temperance Movement
- Chapter 13: In Lieu of Conclusion
Copyright © K.S. Chalam, 2011
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2011 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street
#02-01 Far East Square
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10/13 Palatino by JMD Publisher Services, New Delhi and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Chalam, K.S. (Kurmana Simha), 1948–
Economic reforms and social exclusion: impact of liberalization on marginalized groups in India/K.S. Chalam.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Marginality, Social—India. 2. Caste—India. 3. Minorities—India—Economic conditions. 4. Minorities—India—Social conditions. 5. India—Economic policy. 6. India—Social policy. I. Title.
HN690.Z9M2629 305.5'60954—dc23 2011 2011022522
ISBN: 978-81-321-0644-9 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Gayatri Mishra, Swati Sengupta and Deepti Saxena
For Samiha, Smera and Nischal
Thank you for choosing a SAGE product! If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me email@example.com
—Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO,
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk.
We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.
For orders and enquiries, write to us at
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110044, India
E-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Get to know more about SAGE, be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today email@example.com
This book is also available as an e-book.
List of Tables[Page ix]
- A1.1 Assets of Top 25 Business Groups, 2005–06 8
- 3.1 Macroeconomic Indicators 33
- 3.2 Central Government Social Sector Expenditure (Plan + Non-plan) to Total Budget Expenditure, 1992–93 to 2006–07 37
- 5.1 Special Component Plan Outlay and Expenditure 55
- 5.2 State-wise/UT-wise Special Assistance (SCA) Released/Utilized during 1992–93 to 2007–08 62
- 5.3 State-wise/UT-wise Central Share Released for SFDCS from 1990–91 to 2005–06 64
- 5.4 Representation of SCs and STs in Central Services 67
- 6.1 Percentage of Landless Tribal Households and Those with Marginal Land Holdings (Tribal Area), 1988–89 85
- 6.2 Work Force Participation Rate (WFPR) and Unemployment Rate for Tribal and Non-tribal Population in Each State/UT, 1988–89 87
- 6.3 Percentage of Tribal Population with MPCE Less than 125 in the States/UTs of the Two Regions, 1988–89 90
- 6.4 Flow of Funds for State Plan in Tribal Sub-plans during 1990–91 to 2004–05 92
- 6.5 State-wise/UT-wise Targets and Achievements during Plan Period regarding Economic Assistance to ST Families below Poverty Line (Number of ST Families Economically Assisted) 95 [Page x]
- 6.6 Proportion of People in Poverty among SCs and STs in India, 1993–94 to 2004–05 97
- 6.7 Educational Status of STs in 1990 and 2004 99
- 7.1 Distribution of Workers in Each Socio-religious Category by Activity 108
- 7.2 Incidence of Poverty by Socio-religious Groups in Percentage, 1987–88 to 2004–05 109
- 8.1 Income and Educational Background of Weavers (in Percentage) 118
- 8.2 Size of the Family by Income Group (in Percentage) 119
- 8.3 Use of Outside Labourers 120
- 8.4 Availability of Raw Material 120
- 8.5 Value of Handlooms and Other Implements 122
- 8.6 Frequency of Sale of the Finished Product (Saris) 124
- 8.7 The Status of Credit Obtained by Weavers (in Percentage) 125
- A8.1 State-wise Distribution of Handlooms and Powerlooms 126
- 9.1 Employment in Public Sector, 1960–2004 130
- 9.2 Number of Factories Registered under Factories Act in Visakhapatnam District as on 31 December, 1994 131
- 9.3 Organization-wise and Community-wise Distribution of Voluntary Retired Workers 136
- 9.4 Number of Dependents in the VRS Family (Caste-/Category-wise) 136
- 9.5 Educational Status of VRS Workers by Community 138
- 10.1 Faculty-wise Enrolments in Higher Education in India (Percentage to the Total) 153
- 10.2 Central Government Budget Expenditure on Education (Plan and Non-plan) and Social Sectors as Percentage of GDP, 1984–85 to 2006–07 155
- 10.3 Status of Higher Education in the US, 1965–2005 159 [Page xi]
- 11.1 Health Status Indicators (in Percentage) 173
- 11.2 Proportion of Spells of Ailment Treated during 15 Days by Source of Treatment for Each Household by Social Group, 2004 175
- 11.3 Average Hospitalization Expenses, 2004 176
- 11.4 Per Capita Net Availability of Cereals, 1951–2005 178
- A11.1 Health Conditions and Disability Adjusted Life-Years (DAILYs) Lost in India, 1998 180
- A11.2 Trends in Health Expenditure in India, 1950–51 to 2003–04 182
- A-I Average Value of Total Assets by Social Groups, 2002 205
- A-II Budget Expenditure on Technical Education 206
- A-IIA-III Government Expenditure on Higher Education in India 207
- A-IV Public Expenditure on Higher Education per Pupil 208
- A-V Social Sector Expenditure to Total Expenditure in States 208
- A-VI Percentage of Population below Poverty Line by Social Groups in States, 2004–05 210
List of Abbreviations[Page xiii]
ATI Auxiliary Training Institute AU Andhra University BHPV Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Ltd BIFR Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction BJP Bharatiya Janta Party BOP Bottom of the Pyramid BPL Below Poverty Line BSE Bombay Stock Exchange CAG Comptroller and Auditor General CII The Confederation of Indian Industry CRR Counseling, Retraining and Redeployment CTB Central Tribal Belt CVC Central Vigilance Commission CVD cardiovascular disease DGE&T Directorate General of Employment and Training DLB Dock Labour Board DWACRA Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas EAC Employee Assistance Centres EAS Employment Assurance Scheme EGF Employment Generation Fund FERA Foreign Exchange Regulation Act GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services HDI Human Development Index HSCL Hindustan Steel Works Construction Ltd HSL Hindustan Shipyard Ltd [Page xiv] IAY Indira Awaas Yojna ICDS Integrated Child Development Services ICPR Indian Council of Philosophical Research IMF International Monetary Fund IMFL Indian Made Foreign Liquor IOL Indian Oxygen Ltd IRDP Integrated Rural Development Programme ITI Industrial Training Institute JRY Jawahar Rozgar Yojana KG Krishna-Godavari LAMPS Large-size Adivasi Multipurpose Co-operative Societies MACE Marine and Communications Electronics (India) MFI microfinance institution MNC Multinational Company MP Member of Parliament MRTP Monopolistic and Restrictive Trade Practice NAAC National Assessment Accreditation Council NABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NEP New Economic Policy NGO Non-governmental organization NIP New Industrial Policy NISTADS National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies NREGA National Rural Employment Guarantee Act NRF National Renewal Fund NRGF National Renewal Grant Fund NRHM National Rural Health Mission NSCFDC National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation NSS National Service Scheme NSSO National Sample Survey Organization OBC Other Backward Classes PAC Primary Agriculture Society PCR Protection of Civil Rights PDS Public Distribution System [Page xv] PF Provident Fund PMRY Prime Minister's Rozgar Yojana PPP public-private partnership RIL Reliance India Limited SAP Structural Adjustment Programme SC Scheduled Caste SCDC Scheduled Castes Development Corporation SCP Special Component Plan SEZ Special Economic Zones SHG self-help groups SSI Small Scale Industries ST Scheduled Tribe TB tuberculosis UNDP United Nations Development Programme UPSC Union Public Service Commission VPT Visakhapatnam Port Trust VRS Voluntary Retirement Scheme VSP Visakhapatnam Steel Plant WFPR Work Force Participation Rate
Economic reforms in India were introduced in the year 1991. There were several compelling reasons that impelled the government to adopt the prescriptions of the international funding agencies. The reform package consisted of structural adjustment policy in the neoclassical framework, liberal industrial policy with an emphasis on withdrawing of the state from several economic functions and relying on the market for economic efficiency etc. The unique Nehruvian emphasis on the public sector to build modern India was given ephemeral treatment. It was alleged by several scholars and activists that the public sector that has provided a socialist base in a pluralistic society was not considered important in the spectre of globalization. The social history and the distinctive Indian cultural background of an exclusive character of the country were given a sordid handling by policy makers who were more concerned with the balance of payments crisis than anything else. There is no doubt that there were serious internal social and religious disorders in the country at the time of adoption of the new economic policy which the policy makers thought could be sidelined with this sudden shift in policy. Some scholars and commentators have opined that it was a shrewd move to marginalize the emerging social proletariat.
Realizing the social consequences of counter-attack by the leaders of the marginalized sections of the society who were affected by these policies, the government under the bearing of funding agencies has declared some safety nets. Some of the existing schemes have been renamed and a few others have [Page xviii]been formulated to safeguard the vulnerable groups from the adverse effects of these reforms. The efficiency and efficacy of these schemes in catering to the needs and requirements of the poor has been assessed by several studies during the last few decades. However, none of these studies is cognizant of the traditionally marginalized social groups like scheduled castes, tribes, etc. in India. Most of the studies have either eulogized or blamed the policy makers from the neoclassical or Marxian framework. As the European or Anglo-Saxon knowledge base is of limited use to understand the complexities of India, the cohorts who were trained by them have totally failed in understanding the agonies of the real victims of the so-called economic reforms. There are several socially disadvantaged groups in India who have been marginalized by the mainstream society with age-old practices. The reforms have further strengthened the deprivations of the already marginalized. The concepts of poverty and the poor are universal categories, and have limited application to Indian situation. Further, the programmes of economic reforms have created some more marginal groups like the voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) workers, handloom weavers, rural artisans, etc. Therefore, a need is felt to analyze the impact of the economic reforms on the socially neglected and disadvantaged groups in India. An attempt is made in this study to develop an interdisciplinary framework in the context of European concepts of socially excluded so as to incorporate the Indian categories to asses the adverse effects of a policy which is alien to Indian ethos. In order to provide concrete examples of the impact of the reform agenda on vulnerable groups, some case studies have been added to the study from Andhra Pradesh, a state that was in the forefront in implementing the policies.
I prepared a major part of this study when I was at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. I have thoroughly revised and added up-to-date data to the papers published in Economic and Political Weekly, Seminar, and South India Journal of Social Sciences. The study was related to the period 1991–2005, though the impact of the policy was studied for a longer period for which data are available. The recent processes in the area of social development and the [Page xix]programmes like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), etc. are not taken into consideration for the study (due to lack of appropriate data). The basic aim of the study is to point out the social deficit in economic reforms. As the concept of social deficit is used by sociologists and social psychologists in a different context, I have refrained from using the term in the title of the book.
I was benefited by my interactions with several scholars and colleagues. The Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, Mumbai, has published some parts of the study as Economic Reforms and Missing Safety Nets in 1999. It was translated into Telugu in 1999. But the present book is entirely different in terms of scope and coverage. I had interactions with colleagues in the Indian Political Economy Association such as Prof. Kamal Kabra, Prof. V. Upadhayay, Prof. K.S. Chalapathi Rao; and colleagues in the Institute for Studies in Industrial Development (ISID) including Prof. S.C. Goel, Dr S.R. Hashim, Prof. M.R. Murthy, Prof. S. Majumdar, Prof. Ranganath, and others on issues relating the theme of the book.
Shri Digvijay Singh, Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, gave me an opportunity to participate in the deliberations of his ambitious diversity programme as a member of the state planning board. I have attended seminars organized by the Vikas Adhyayan Kendra and exchanged ideas with Prof. Gopal Guru, Dr Anand Teltumbde, Dr Ajit Muricken, and the South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE) group on poverty. Prof. K. Ramakrishna Rao, Shri Abid Hussain, Shri B.N. Yugandhar, Prof. B.L. Mungekar, Prof. S.K. Thorat, and others have made encouraging comments when I made a presentation on the methodological dichotomies of social exclusion at the joint conclave of Indian Institute of Advanced Study and Planning Commission at Shimla in 2008. My former students Prof. D. Pulla Rao, Dr D. Francis, Dr M. Ram Mohan Rao, and Dr Janardhana Rao have helped me in getting the relevant data for analysis.
I have moved to a new environment in 2005. My colleagues Shri K. Roy Paul, Ms Parveen Talha, and Dr Bhure Lal have provided me an academic ambience in a bureaucratic set-up [Page xx]through a process of discussion on important issues. An anonymous reviewer has made useful comments that helped me to refurbish the work before giving it for publication. I am grateful to all of them for their support and kind gesture of encouragement to complete the study. Shri Raj Kumar has provided excellent secretarial assistance. He was aided by my personal staff Shri Vinay and Shri S.S. Sarma.
The opinions expressed in the work are personal and do not reflect that of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)., New Delhi
TABLE A-I Average Value of Total Assets by Social Groups, 2002 Social Group Rural () Urban () ST 136,640 240,295 SC 125,954 182,351 OBC 266,033 334,161 Others 429,513 560,362 Total 265,606 417,158 1981 – 41 000 1991 – 144 000Source:Sarvekshana, December 2007.[Page 206]TABLE A-II Budget Expenditure on Technical Education (100 Crore = 1 Billion)
[Page 207][Page 208]TABLE A-III Government Expenditure on Higher Education in India (100 Crore = 1 Billion)TABLE A-IV Public Expenditure on Higher Education per Pupil ()TABLE A-V Social Sector Expenditure* to Total Expenditure in States
[Page 210]TABLE A-VI Percentage of Population below Poverty Line by Social Groups in States, 2004–0 5
Bibliography[Page 212]Economic Reforms, Unemployment and Poverty: The Indian Experience. New Delhi: New Century Publications, 2008.Ahulwalia, I.J. and I.M.D.Little (Eds). Indian Economic Reforms and Development: Essays for Manmohan Singh. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.India's Economic Reforms: An Appraisal,’ in India in the Era of Economic Reforms, D. SachsJeffrey, AshutoshVarshney and NirupamBajpai (Eds). New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.‘State and Government in Ancient India. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasi Das, 1958.Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis, 1996.Bagchi, A.K. (Ed.). Economy and Organisation: Indian Institutions under Neoliberal Regime. New Delhi: SAGE, 1999.Bailey, A.M. and J.Liobera (Eds). The Asiatic Mode of Production: Science and Politics. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981.Tribe Caste and Nation: A Study of Political Activity and Political Change in Highland Orissa. Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1960.India's Globalization: Evaluating the Economic Consequences. New Delhi: SAGE, 2007.Between Hope and Fear: Globalisation and Race in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.Basu, K. (Ed.). The Oxford Companion to Economics in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.Economic Liberalisation and Poverty Alleviation: Social Sector Expenditure and Centre State Relations. Delhi: Deep and Deep, 2001.The Problems of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. New Delhi: Light and Life, 1979.India and China: Trade Complementaries and Competitiveness into WTO Regime. New Delhi: Book Well, 2008., and .Bhattacharyya, H., P.Sarkar and A.Kar (Eds). The Politics of Social Exclusion in India: Democracy at the Crossroads. London: Routledge, 2009.[Page 213]India's Economic Crisis-The Way Ahead. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991.Feudal Society (2 volumes). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961.Boholm, A. (Ed.). Political Ritual. Göteborg: Institute for Advanced Studies in Social Anthropology, 1996.The Limits of Liberty between Anarchy and Leviathan. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1975.Public Finance and Public Choice: Two Contrasting Views of the State. Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1999.and .The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1962.and .The State and Political Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.Economic Reform in China and India. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006.and .Development Planning: The Indian Experience. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.Education and Weaker Sections. New Delhi: Inter India, 1998.Chalam, K.S. (Ed.). Readings in Political Economy. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1999.Human Development in South India: The Dravidian Marvel. Delhi: Anmol, 2002.Challenges of Higher Education. New Delhi: Anmol, 2005.Caste-based Reservations and Human Development in India. New Delhi: SAGE, 2007.Political Economy of Underdevelopment in Kalingandhra. Delhi: Zenith Books International, 2009.Deconstructing Higher Education Reforms In India. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, forthcoming.Challenging Untouchability: Dalit Initiative and Experience from Karnataka. Delhi: SAGE, 1998.and .The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Post Colonial Histories. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.Chatterjee, P. (Ed.). State and Politics in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.Towards Sustainable Growth. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.India: Emerging Power. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2001.Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington D.C.: Coleman Study Department of Education, Health and Welfare, 1966.[Page 214]Spiritual Authority and Temporal Power in the Indian Theory of Government. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1942.Income Distribution and Inequality Measurement: The Problem of Extreme Values. London: STICERD, London School of Economics, 2006.and .The Social Background of Indian Nationalism. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 2002.The Hollow Crown: Ethno History of an Indian Kingdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957Homo-Hierachicus: The Caste System and Its Implications. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980.Economic Reforms in India-A Critique. Delhi: S. Chand & Co., 1997.Growth, Poverty and Equity. Delhi: Deep and Deep, 2008.India's New Middle Class: Democratic Politics in an Era of Economic Reform. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.India's Political Economy 1947–2004: The Gradual Revolution. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005.The Affluent Society. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1958.Perspectives in Marxist Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.The Economics and Ideology of Free Trade: A Historical Review. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003.Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.Government of India. Employment and Unemployment Situation in India. Delhi: NSSO, 61st Round, 2006.Monopoly Capital and Public Policy. Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1979.The Political Economy of Reform in Developing Countries. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.On the Pragmatics of Social Interaction: Preliminary Studies in the Communicative Action. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.The Global Trap: Globalization and the Assault on Democracy and Prosperity. London: Zed Books, 1997.and .Reflections on Human Development. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000.India: The Most Dangerous Decades. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960.Legacy of a Divided Nation. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.Kingship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969.[Page 215]ILO (International Labour Organisation). Social Exclusion and Antipoverty Policy: A Debate. Geneva: IILS, 1997.IMF (International Monetary Fund). ‘Mind the Gap: Is Growth Leaving some Indian States Behind?’, IMF Survey, December, 2006.IMF (International Monetary Fund). ‘World Economic Outlook: Globalization and Inflation’. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2006/01/index.htm (accessed in 2006).Caste and Social Stratification among the Muslims. Delhi: Manohar, 1973.Imagining India. Oxford: Blackwell Publication, 1990.Politics and Social Conflict in South India: The Non-Brahmin Movement and Tamil Separatism. Berkeley: University of California, 1969.Jha, D.N. (Ed.). Feudal Society Formation in Early India. Delhi: Chanakya, 1987.Economic Reforms 1991–2001. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198290780.001.0001and .Kapoor, M. (Ed.), Collected Works of Dr Rammanohar Lohia. New Delhi: Anamika Publishers and Distributors, 2001.Billion Entrepreneurs. Delhi: Penguin/Viking, 2007.The Asiatic Mode of Production: Sources, Development and Critique in the Writings of Karl Marx. Assen: Von Gorcum, 1975.The Age of Diminished Expectations,3rdEd. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2008.The State in India 1000–1700. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995.A History of India. Calcutta: Rupa & Co., 1991.and .Global Capitalism and the Indian economy. New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1994.‘Economic Growth and Income Inequality’. American Economic Review, 45, 1955.,Modern Economic Growth: Rate, Structure and Spread. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publisher, 1966.The Concept of Social Exclusion and the New Durkhecmian Hegemony’, Critical Social Policy February, 1996.‘The Anatomy of Racial Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.Foundations of Indian Political Thought: An Interpretation from Manu to the present Day. New Delhi: Manohar, 2005.Politics of Economic Reforms in India. New Delhi: SAGE, 2005.[Page 216]The Flamming Feet: A Study of Dalit Movement in India. Bangalore: South Forum Press, 1993.India: Analytics, Experience and Lessons of Economic Liberalization. Delhi: Orient Longman, 1995.Trade and Industrialization. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.The Fiscal Crisis of the State. New York: St. Martins Press, 1973.OECD (Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development). Economic Surveys: India. Delhi: Academic Foundation, 2007.Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movements and the Construction of an Indian Identity. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1995.Seeking Begumpura: The Social Vision of Anticaste Intellectuals. New Delhi: Nyayana, 2008.Patnaik, P. (Ed.). Macro Economics. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995.Planning Commission of India. National Human Development Report. New Delhi: Government of India, 2004.Planning Commission of India. Towards Faster and More Inclusive Growth: An Approach to Five Year Plan, June. New Delhi: Government of India, 2006.Economic Reforms and Social Sector Development: A Study of Two Indian States. New Delhi: SAGE, 2001.Dalit: The Black Untouchables of India. Atlanta: Clarity, 1987.Tradition, Rationality and Change: Essays in Sociology of Economic Development and Social Change. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1972.Is India's Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?,’ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, 2002.and . ‘‘Equity and Growth in Developing Countries: Old and New Perspectives on the Policy Issues’. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2002., and .A Theory of Justice. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.India's Liberalization Experience-Hostage to the WTO?New Delhi: SAGE, 2008.Sachs, J.D., A.Varshney and N.Bajpai (Eds). India in the Era of Economic Reforms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.Economy Class Society. Madras: Madras University, 1986.The Jungle Kings: Ethno historical Aspects of Politics and Rituals in Orissa. New Delhi: Manohar Books, 2002.Social Exclusion: Concept, Application and Scrutiny. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 1998.Development as Freedom. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.[Page 217]The Idea of Justice. New Delhi: Allen Lane and Penguin India, 2009.Sen, Rajkumar, (Ed.), Social Sector Development in India. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 2005.Shah, G.S. (Ed.). Dalits and the State. New Delhi: Concept Publishers, 2002.Caste, Class and Social Movements. Jaipur: Rawat, 1986.Ambekdar and Indian Constitution. Delhi: Ashish, 1992.A Citizen's Guide to the Globalization of Finance. Delhi: Madhyam Books, 1998.An Enquiry in to the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations. Edited by EdwardCannan. London: Meuthen and Co., 1904.The Oxford History of India,4thEd. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981.Sommer, J.W. (Ed.). The Political Economy of Higher Education. New Brunswick: Rutgers-The State University, 1995.The Segmentary State in Africa and Asia,’ Comparative Studies in Society and History, 30, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500015048‘Caste: Its Twentieth Century Avatar. Delhi: Penguin, 1997.Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1980.Globalisation and Its Discontents. New York: Norton, 2002.Understanding Reforms-Post 1991 India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.and .From Lineage to State: Social Formations in the Mid first Millennium B.C. in the Ganges Valley. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1984.The Penguin History of Early India. Delhi: Penguin Books, 2002.Public Spending and the Poor. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 1995..The Politics of the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.European Inequalities: Social Inclusion and Income Distribution in the European Union. London: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, 2009., , and .World Bank. Financing Health Services in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Reform, Washington D.C., 1987.World Bank. The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy, Washington D.C., 1993.World Bank. Globalization, Growth and Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
About the Author[Page 225]
K.S. Chalam is Ex-Member, Union Public Service Commission, New Delhi, India. He is a well-known political economist and educationist. He was the Vice Chancellor of the Dravidian University, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh. He has also taught in the Department of Economics, Andhra University, as a lecturer, reader and professor between 1976 and 2005. He was the recipient of the UGC Young Social Scientist Award in Economics in 1984.
He is known as the founder of the Academic Staff College Scheme in the country and was its first Director. He was on the Planning Board of the Madhya Pradesh government during 2002–04. He has published books in English and Telugu and his research papers have been published in reputed journals. He has travelled widely and has participated in and chaired sessions at various international conferences.