Early Childhood Education and Care: Policy and Practice
Publication Year: 2007
Currently, the majority of textbooks for early childhood education in the UK focus on the situation in England. As a result, readers may have a skewed perspective on policy and practice, and not be aware of the varying and different contexts in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Also, those working in settings not in England have to work hard to apply texts to their own contexts. This book gives the reader easy access to information on the policies and practices in ECEC across each of the countries in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Each chapter covers background information; policy and practice in early childhood education and care; transition; schooling and curriculum; quality assurance, examination, and inspection; professional development and training; future and imminent ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Chapter One © Margaret M Clark and Tim Waller 2007
Chapter Two © Gill McGillivray 2007
Chapter Three © Glenda Walsh 2007
Chapter Four © Philomena Donnelly 2007
Chapter Five © Eileen Carmichael and Juliet Hancock 2007
Chapter Six © Siân Wyn Siencyn and Sally Thomas 2007
Chapter Seven © Margaret M Clark and Tim Waller 2007
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-3572-2 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006939577
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press Ltd, Gateshead
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List of Figures and Tables[Page vii]
- 1.1 Map showing the location of the countries making up the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland xvi
- 1.1 The United Kingdom Population in 2004 2
- 2.1 Types of Early Years care and education provision in England 31
- 2.2 National Curriculum: Key Stages, ages and types of setting in England 34
- 3.1 Ages and stages of schooling in Northern Ireland 67
- 4.1 ECEC services in the childcare sector in the Republic of Ireland 93
- 4.2 Grades and average ages of children in primary schools in the Republic of Ireland 96
- 4.3 Curriculum areas and subjects in primary schools in the Republic of Ireland 96
- 5.1 Number of local authority or partnership pre-school education centres by type of centre and local authority in Scotland in January 2006 118
- 5.2 Structure of schooling in Scotland 123
- 5.3 Curricular continuity and learning in Scotland, 3–14 124
- 6.1 Types of provision and numbers of childcare settings in Wales in 2006 143
- 6.2 Children under five and maintained provision in Wales in 2004 144
- 6.3 The Foundation Phase timetable in Wales 151 [Page viii]
- 7.1 Early childhood education and care in the UK and the Republic of Ireland by country 174
- 7.2 Childcare costs in England, Scotland and Wales, February 2006 177
- 7.3 Early childhood education and care: curricula and assessment across the UK and the Republic of Ireland 178
- 7.4 Workforce strategies across the UK and the Republic of Ireland 179
We are grateful to the authors of Chapters 2–6 who have so enthusiastically co-operated in the writing of this book. Their chapters have been drafted and re-drafted with good grace to meet our guidelines. This has enabled us, while retaining some originality in the presentation, to give uniformity of layout for the benefit of our student readers.
Thanks to Colette Murray, Early Years Co-ordinator, Pavey Point for preparing Owney's story and Karen Argent of Manchester Metropolitan University, who worked on a Trailblazer local SureStart Programme in Birmingham, for preparing Suraya's story.
The ten case studies, though not based on specific children, are written to represent possible experiences that real children born in 2000 might have encountered during their first six years of life. We are grateful to B. Cohen, P. Moss, P. Petrie and J. Wallace, the authors of A New Deal for Children? Re-forming education and care in England, Scotland and Sweden (2004, Policy Press), whose book stimulated us to bring the chapters alive with case studies.
Thanks to Early Years colleagues at Newman College of Higher Education, Birmingham, for commenting on draft chapters taking the perspective of potential student readers – in particular Julie Boardman, Helen Davies and Allison Tatton.
It has been a pleasure to work with Helen Fairlie, our Commissioning Editor at Sage, who has been helpful and supportive throughout.2007[Page x]
About the Authors
Guidelines for Practical Work Based on the Case Studies[Page xiii]
You may make photocopies of these guidelines and the case studies.
Chapters 2–6, on England, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, will give you an opportunity to compare and contrast policy and practice in early childhood education and care across the United Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland. Each chapter is introduced and brought alive by the stories of two children born in 2000 and living in that country for the first six years of their lives. In the final section of each chapter a further child is introduced, born in 2006, whose early experience might be influenced by the developing policies described elsewhere in the chapter.
The ten case studies are a valuable resource from which to consider the factors that influence the early experiences of young children in the twenty-first century. The case studies, though not based on specific children, are included to represent possible experiences that real children born in 2000 might have encountered during their first six years of life. We are grateful to B. Cohen, P. Moss, P. Petrie and J. Wallace, the authors of A New Deal for Children? Re-forming education and care in England, Scotland and Sweden (2004, Policy Press), whose book stimulated us to bring the chapters alive with case studies.
The experiences encountered by these young children would be influenced by family circumstances, by services from which the family could benefit, depending on where they lived, and the curricular guidelines under which the pre-school and early primary school curriculum operated.[Page xiv]
- Name and month of birth of target child
- Number, sex and age of siblings relative to the target child
- Details of parent(s) and their social and educational background
- Mother's and father's employment during first six years and whether full– or part-time
- Language(s) spoken in the home and in the community
- Place(s) of residence (whether urban or rural)
- Any grandparents or other extended family locally
- Changes of residence during first six years
- Any traumatic events during first six years Became one instead of two parent family Illness of close relative (or death).
Experiences of the child during the first six years
(note the age of the child when in each placement and duration of placement)
- Cared for by one or other parent at home
- With extended family, regularly or occasionally
- With childminder(s) occasionally or regularly
- In pre-school setting
- With mother
- Without mother
- List settings
- Other professionals involved with the family
- In the home
- List the services from which the child/family benefited.
Pre-school curricular experiences
Note the type of curriculum, and at what age the child experienced it.
Please note that all the case study children were born in 2000. However, their month of birth may have influenced the exact age at which they entered primary school.[Page xv]
- The exact age at which the child entered primary school
- If given, the size of school and class and age range in the class
- Number of adults, for example teaching assistant in addition to teacher
- Any information on the teacher's background and training
- Curriculum experienced by the child up to six years of age
- The curriculum likely to be experienced by the child up to eight years of age (you may need to consult the relevant chapter for that information)
- In addition to attending primary school, what if any other care/provision did the child attend (for example, out of school care, a childminder, grandparents)?
Finally, make a list of all the types of provision the child had attended by the age of six. Also note in how many instances, and at what ages, the child was attending more than one provision concurrently.
Note that although some of the children did move from one part of the country to another, none of them moved to a different part of the United Kingdom, or to or from the Republic of Ireland in their first six years. These are further moves that might be experienced by young children and their families. As you will appreciate after studying the following chapters this will mean even more adjustments for the families. How different might the early experiences of these children have been had they moved to one of the other countries, or elsewhere in Europe, and how might that have influenced their early education and care?[Page xvi]Figure 1.1 Map showing the location of the countries making up the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland