Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective


Glenn D. Walters

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  • Drugs, Health, and Social Policy Series

    Edited by James A. Inciardi

    About This Series

    The Sage Drugs, Health, and Social Policy Series provides students and professionals in the fields of substance abuse, AIDS, public health, and criminal justice access to current research, programs, and policy issues particular to their specialties. Each year, four new volumes will focus on a topic of national significance.

    1. Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective

    Glenn D. Walters


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    Drugs and crime have long held the fascination of the American public. Although the negative consequences of drug use and criminal activity have been extensively documented, the reader may be surprised to learn that these problems are not of recent onset. Even before the American Revolution, life in America was periodically disrupted by the machinations of highway robbers and the irrational behavior of persons acting under the influence of intoxicating beverages. It is therefore imperative that we do not overinterpret the current situation with respect to drug use and crime, but rather work to balance present-day concerns about drug-seeking behavior and crime with the realization that these problems are well ingrained in the American experience. In the pages that follow, I will present sundry perspectives on drug abuse, crime, and their interrelationship in an effort to ascertain the true nature of the drug-crime connection across specific conditions, situations, and circumstances. The first order of business, however, concerns the clarification of terms such as drug abuse and crime.

    A drug is normally defined as any chemical substance other than food that affects the structure or function of the body. I restrict the present investigation to chemical compounds capable of altering a person's mood or subjective emotional state—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin, among others. Whether a drug is legal or illegal, manufactured or harvested, injected or swallowed, what is of prime significance is that the substance lends itself to widespread misuse because of its mood-altering properties. Though the drug-crime connection may vary as a function of specific drugs used or crimes committed, my focus in the present discussion will be on the more general relationship presumed to exist between drugs of abuse and criminal outcome. Hence, in referencing drugs, the definition will be restricted to common drugs of abuse, drug abuse being defined as the regular or habitual use of one or more of these substances to the point where the individual suffers multiple major life problems as a consequence.

    Identifying a useful definition of crime also presents problems for scholars interested in probing the drug-crime connection, because the correlates of crime frequently vary as a function of the definition employed. Definitions of crime run the gamut from highly behavioral conceptualizations, such as those employed by research psychologists, to the legal definitions adopted by the judiciary and the criminal justice system. In this text I will attempt to merge these two trends by defining crime as rule-breaking behavior that, if known to legal authorities, would result in the rule breaker's being charged with a criminal offense punishable by law. Whether this law-violating behavior occurs during adolescence or adulthood is less important than documenting the rule-violating nature of the behavior and certifying that the individual was cognizant of the wrongfulness of his or her actions at the time the offense was committed. Though such a definition may appear overly inclusive to some, it nonetheless succeeds in capturing the legal foundation of many commonly accepted definitions of criminality.

    A perspective can be conceived of as one's manner of viewing a particular event, situation, or issue. In the chapters that follow, I will review and scrutinize data and perspectives relevant to the putative association between drug abuse and crime. There are, to be sure, many different perspectives potentially applicable to research on drug abuse, criminality, and their interconnection. In this book, I will examine several major categories of perspectives relevant to these concerns. To this end, I will explore condition-based, choice-based, and cognition-based viewpoints in an effort to construct a comprehensive explanation of the drug-crime connection. These perspectives offer behavioral scientists the opportunity to probe the boundaries and parameters of the drug-crime connection by allowing a structural appraisal of data pertinent to this relationship. With this in mind, let us turn our attention to the conditions, choices, cognitions, and change strategies viewed to be crucial in the development of drug and criminal lifestyles, and the overlap thought to exist between these two lifestyles.


    I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my wife, Patti, and two children, Christopher and Tara, for the love, support, and patience they have demonstrated over the past year, without which this book never would have been possible.

    The assertions and opinions contained herein are the private views of the author and should not be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Federal Bureau of Prisons or the U.S. Department of Justice.

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    About the Author

    Glenn D. Walters has spent the past two years as a staff psychologist and coordinator of the substance abuse program at the Federal Correctional Institute in Schuylkill, Pennsylvania, an adult male medium security federal prison. After receiving a B.A. in psychology from Lebanon Valley College in 1976, an M.A. in clinical psychology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 1978, and a Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Texas Tech University in 1982, he completed a one-year internship at Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center in Fort Gordon, Georgia. Subsequent to his internship, he was assigned to the mental health directorate of the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he remained until his discharge from the military in August 1984. He then took a position with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, first at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, then at the Federal Correctional Institute in Fairton, New Jersey, and finally at the Federal Correctional Institution in Schuylkill. His current primary research interests include investigations into the genetic correlates of crime, attempts to improve criminal assessment, and extension of lifestyle theory to substance abuse, compulsive gambling, and other behaviors known to overlap with the criminal lifestyle.

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