Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective

Books

Glenn D. Walters

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Drugs, Health, and Social Policy Series

    Edited by James A. Inciardi

    About This Series

    The Sage Drugs, Health, and Social Policy Series provides students and professionals in the fields of substance abuse, AIDS, public health, and criminal justice access to current research, programs, and policy issues particular to their specialties. Each year, four new volumes will focus on a topic of national significance.

    1. Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective

    Glenn D. Walters

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    Drugs and crime have long held the fascination of the American public. Although the negative consequences of drug use and criminal activity have been extensively documented, the reader may be surprised to learn that these problems are not of recent onset. Even before the American Revolution, life in America was periodically disrupted by the machinations of highway robbers and the irrational behavior of persons acting under the influence of intoxicating beverages. It is therefore imperative that we do not overinterpret the current situation with respect to drug use and crime, but rather work to balance present-day concerns about drug-seeking behavior and crime with the realization that these problems are well ingrained in the American experience. In the pages that follow, I will present sundry perspectives on drug abuse, crime, and their interrelationship in an effort to ascertain the true nature of the drug-crime connection across specific conditions, situations, and circumstances. The first order of business, however, concerns the clarification of terms such as drug abuse and crime.

    A drug is normally defined as any chemical substance other than food that affects the structure or function of the body. I restrict the present investigation to chemical compounds capable of altering a person's mood or subjective emotional state—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin, among others. Whether a drug is legal or illegal, manufactured or harvested, injected or swallowed, what is of prime significance is that the substance lends itself to widespread misuse because of its mood-altering properties. Though the drug-crime connection may vary as a function of specific drugs used or crimes committed, my focus in the present discussion will be on the more general relationship presumed to exist between drugs of abuse and criminal outcome. Hence, in referencing drugs, the definition will be restricted to common drugs of abuse, drug abuse being defined as the regular or habitual use of one or more of these substances to the point where the individual suffers multiple major life problems as a consequence.

    Identifying a useful definition of crime also presents problems for scholars interested in probing the drug-crime connection, because the correlates of crime frequently vary as a function of the definition employed. Definitions of crime run the gamut from highly behavioral conceptualizations, such as those employed by research psychologists, to the legal definitions adopted by the judiciary and the criminal justice system. In this text I will attempt to merge these two trends by defining crime as rule-breaking behavior that, if known to legal authorities, would result in the rule breaker's being charged with a criminal offense punishable by law. Whether this law-violating behavior occurs during adolescence or adulthood is less important than documenting the rule-violating nature of the behavior and certifying that the individual was cognizant of the wrongfulness of his or her actions at the time the offense was committed. Though such a definition may appear overly inclusive to some, it nonetheless succeeds in capturing the legal foundation of many commonly accepted definitions of criminality.

    A perspective can be conceived of as one's manner of viewing a particular event, situation, or issue. In the chapters that follow, I will review and scrutinize data and perspectives relevant to the putative association between drug abuse and crime. There are, to be sure, many different perspectives potentially applicable to research on drug abuse, criminality, and their interconnection. In this book, I will examine several major categories of perspectives relevant to these concerns. To this end, I will explore condition-based, choice-based, and cognition-based viewpoints in an effort to construct a comprehensive explanation of the drug-crime connection. These perspectives offer behavioral scientists the opportunity to probe the boundaries and parameters of the drug-crime connection by allowing a structural appraisal of data pertinent to this relationship. With this in mind, let us turn our attention to the conditions, choices, cognitions, and change strategies viewed to be crucial in the development of drug and criminal lifestyles, and the overlap thought to exist between these two lifestyles.

    Acknowledgments

    I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my wife, Patti, and two children, Christopher and Tara, for the love, support, and patience they have demonstrated over the past year, without which this book never would have been possible.

    The assertions and opinions contained herein are the private views of the author and should not be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Federal Bureau of Prisons or the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • References

    Abel, G.G., & Annon, J.S. (1982, April). Reducing deviant sexual arousal through satiation. Workshop presented at the 4th National Conference on Sexual Aggression, Denver, CO.
    Adler, F. (1983). Nations not obsessed with crime. Littleton, CO: Fred B. Rothman.
    Agar, M.H. (1973). Ripping and running: A formal ethnography of urban heroin addicts. New York: Academic Press.
    Agnew, R., & Petersen, D.M. (1989). Leisure and delinquency. Social Problems, 36, 332–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800819
    Ahmed, S.W., Bush, P.J., Davidson, F.R., & Ionnotti, R.J. (1984). Predicting children's use and intentions to use abusable substances. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Ainslie, G. (1982). Beyond microeconomics: Conflict among interests in a multiple self as a determinant of values. Paper presented at the Conference on the Multiple Self, Paris.
    Ainsworth, M.D. S. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34, 932–937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.932
    Akers, R.L. (1984). Delinquent behavior, drugs, and alcohol: What is the relationship?Today's Delinquent, 3, 19–47.
    Akers, R.L. (1985). Deviant behavior: A social learning approach (
    2nd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Alexander, J.F., Waldron, H.B., Barton, C., & Mas, C.H. (1989). The minimizing of blaming attributions and behaviors in delinquent families. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 19–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.1.19
    Anderson, A. (1985). Impact of a job training program on CETA-qualified probationers. Federal Probation, 49, 17–20.
    Anderson, C.A., & Anderson, D.C. (1984). Ambient temperature and violent crime: Tests of the linear and curvilinear hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 91–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.1.91
    Andrucci, G.L., Archer, R.P., Pancoast, D.L., & Gordon, R.A. (1989). The relationship of MMPI and sensation-seeking scales to adolescent drug use. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 253–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5302_4
    Anglin, M.D., & Speckart, G. (1988). Narcotics and crime: A multisample, multimethod analysis. Criminology, 26, 197–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00839.x
    Archer, D., & Gartner, R. (1984). Violence and crime in cross-national perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Ayers, D.J., Duguid, S., Montague, C., & Wolowidnyk, S. (1980). Effects of the University of Victoria program: A post-release study. Report prepared for the Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada, Ottawa.
    Ball, J.C., Rosen, L., Flueck, J.A., & Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In J.A.Inciardi (ed.), The drugs-crime connection (pp. 39–65). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Bancroft, J. (1970). A comparative study of aversion and desensitization in the treatment of homosexuality. In L.E.Burns & J.L.Worley (eds.), Behavior therapy in the 1970's (pp. 1–22). Bristol: John Wright.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Barrett, M.E., Joe, G.W., & Simpson, D.D. (1990). Availability of drugs and psychological proneness in opioid addiction. International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 1211–1226.
    Bates, J.E., Maslin, C.A., & Frankel, K.A. (1985). Attachment security, mother-child interaction, and temperament as predictors of behavior-problem ratings at age three years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1–2, Serial No. 209). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333832
    Beck, J.L. (1981). Employment, community treatment center placement, and recidivism: A study of released federal offenders. Federal Probation, 45, 3–8.
    Becker, G.S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/259394
    Bell, R.Q. (1979). Parent, child, and reciprocal influences. American Psychologist, 34, 821–826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.821
    Bennett, T. (1986). A decision-making approach to opioid addiction. In D.B.Cornish & R.V.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 83–103). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-4_6
    Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1985). The drug taking careers of English opiate addicts. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Criminological Society, San Diego, CA.
    Benson, M.L. (1985). Denying the guilty mind: Accounting for involvement in a white-collar crime. Criminology, 23, 583–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00365.x
    Berndt, T.J., & Berndt, E.G. (1975). Children's use of motives and intentionality in person perception and moral judgement. Child Development, 46, 904–912. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128396
    Biddle, B.J., Bank, B.J., & Marlin, M.M. (1980). Social determinants of adolescent drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 215–241.
    Biernacki, P. (1990). Recovering from opiate addiction without treatment: A summary. NIDA Research Monograph Series, 98, 113–119.
    Bishop, D.M. (1984). Deterrence: A panel analysis. Justice Quarterly, 1, 311–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828400088181
    Black, W.A., & Gregson, R.A. (1973). Time perspective, purpose in life, extroversion and neuroticism in New Zealand prisoners. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 12, 50–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1973.tb00845.x
    Blakey, R., & Baker, R. (1980). An exposure approach to alcohol abuse. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 319–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2880%2990090-X
    Blehar, M.C., Lieberman, A.F., & Ainsworth, M.D. S. (1977). Early face-to-face interaction and its relation to later infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 48, 182–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128897
    Block, J. (1971). Lives through time. Berkeley, CA: Bancroft.
    Bohman, M., Cloninger, C.R., Sigvardsson, S., & von Knorring, A.-L. (1982). Predisposition to petty criminality in Swedish adoptees: I. Genetic and environmental heterogeneity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1233–1241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290110001001
    Bradley, B.P., Phillips, G., Green, L., & Gossop, M. (1989). Circumstances surrounding the initial lapse to opiate use following detoxification. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 354–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.154.3.354
    Brecher, M., Wang, B.W., Wong, H., & Morgan, J.P. (1988). Phencyclidine and violence: Clinical and legal issues. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 397–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004714-198812000-00003
    Brier, S.S., & Fienberg, S.E. (1980). Recent economic modeling of crime and punishment: Support for the deterrence hypothesis? In S.E.Fieberg & A.J.Reiss (eds.), Indicators of crime and criminal justice: Quantitative studies (pp. 82–97). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Brook, J.S., Whiteman, M., Gordon, A.S., & Brook, D.W. (1983). Paternal correlates of adolescent marijuana use in the context of the mother-son and parental dyads. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 108, 197–213.
    Brown, B.B., & Altman, I. (1983). Territoriality, defensible space and residential burglary: An environmental analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 203–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2883%2980001-2
    Brown, H.P., & Peterson, J.H. (1990). Rationale and procedural suggestions for defining and actualizing spiritual values in the treatment of dependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 7, 17–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J020V07N03_02
    Brown, S.A., Goldman, M.S., Inn, A., & Anderson, L.R. (1980). Expectations of reinforcement from alcohol: Their domain and relation to drinking patterns. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 419–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.48.4.419
    Brunswick, A.F. (1988). Drug use and affective distress: A longitudinal study of urban black youth. Advances in Adolescent Mental Health, 3, 101–125.
    Bry, B.H., McKeon, P., & Pandina, R.J. (1982). Extent of drug use as a function of number of risk factors. Journal of ‘Abnormal Psychology, 91, 273–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.91.4.273
    Buikhuisen, W., Bontekoe, E.H. M., Plas-Korenhoff, C., & van Buuren, S. (1984). Characteristics of criminals: The privileged offender. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 301–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2527%2884%2990014-1
    Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1983a). Prisoners and alcohol. Washington, DC: Author.
    Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1983b). Prisoners and drugs. Washington, DC: Author.
    Burt, M.R. (1983). Justifying personal violence: A comparison of rapists and the general public. Victimology, 8, 131–150.
    Bush, J. (1983). Criminality and psychopathology: Treatment for the guilty. Federal Probation, 47, 44–49.
    Cadoret, R.J., & Cain, C. (1980). Sex differences in predictors of antisocial behavior in adoptees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 941–951.
    Cadoret, R.J., O'Gorman, T.W., Troughton, E., & Heywood, E. (1985). Alcoholism and antisocial personality: Interrelationships, genetic and environmental factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 161–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790250055007
    Cadoret, R.J., Troughton, E., O'Gorman, T.W., & Heywood, E. (1986). An adoption study of genetic and environmental factors in drug abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 1131–1136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800120017004
    Cahalan, C., & Room, R. (1974). Problem drinking among American men. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center for Alcohol Studies.
    Cahalan, D., & Cisin, I.H. (1976). Epidemiological and social factors associated with drinking problems. In R.E.Tarter & A.A.Sugarman (eds.), Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary approaches to an enduring problem (pp. 523–572). New York: Plenum.
    Carr, R.R., & Meyers, E.J. (1980). Marijuana and cocaine: The process of change in drug policy. In Drug Abuse Council, The facts about drug abuse (pp. 153–189). New York: Free Press.
    Carroll, J.S. (1978). A psychological approach to deterrence: The evaluation of crime opportunities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1512–1520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.12.1512
    Casemont, W. (1983). Values clarification, Kohlberg and choosing. Counseling and Values, 27, 130–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.1983.tb01127.x
    Cernkovich, S.A., & Giordano, P.C. (1987). Family relationships and delinquency. Criminology, 25, 295–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00799.x
    Chaney, E.F., O'Leary, M.R., & Marlatt, G.A. (1978). Skill training with alcoholics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1092–1104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.5.1092
    Chein, I., Gerard, D.L., Lee, R.S., & Rosenfeld, E. (1964). The road to H: Narcotics, delinquency, and social policy. New York: Basic Books.
    Christiansen, B.A., & Goldman, M.S. (1983). Alcohol-related expectancies versus demographic/background variables in the prediction of adolescent drinking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 249–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.2.249
    Christiansen, B.A., Goldman, M.S., & Inn, A. (1982). Development of alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents: Separating pharmacological from social-learning influences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 336–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.3.336
    Christiansen, B.A., & Teahan, J.E. (1987). Cross-cultural comparisons of Irish and American adolescent drinking practices and beliefs. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 558–562.
    Cimler, E., & Beach, L.R. (1981). Factors involved in juveniles’ decisions about crime. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 8, 275–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009385488100800302
    Cinquemani, D.K. (1975). Drinking and violence among Middle American Indians. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.
    Clayton, R.R., & Voss, H.L. (1981). Young men and drugs in Manhattan: A causal analysis. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Cloninger, C.R. (1987). Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. Science, 236, 410–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2882604
    Cloninger, C.R., Bohman, M., & Sigvardsson, S. (1981). Inheritance of alcohol abuse: Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 861–868. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780330019001
    Cohen, L.E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094589
    Connell, D.B. (1976). Individual differences in attachment: An investigation into stability, implications, and relationships to the structure of early language development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University.
    Cook, P.J. (1980). Research on criminal deterrence: Laying the groundwork for the second decade. In N.Morris & M.Tonry (eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 2, pp. 211–268). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Corbin, R.M. (1980). Decisions that might not get made. In T.S.Wallsten (ed.), Cognitive processes in choice and decision behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Critchlow, B. (1986). The powers of John Barleycorn: Beliefs about the effects of alcohol on social behavior. American Psychologist, 41, 751–764. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.7.751
    Cromwell, P.F., Olson, J.N., Avary, D.W., & Marks, A. (1991). How drugs affect decisions by burglars. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 35, 310–321.
    Crowley, T.J. (1988). Learning and unlearning drug abuse in the real world: Clinical treatment and public policy. NIDA Research Monograph Series, 84, 100–121.
    Cuddy, M.E., & Frame, C. (1991). Comparison of aggressive and nonaggressive boys’ self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs. Child Study Journal, 21, 135–152.
    Cullen, F.T., Larson, M.T., & Mathers, R.A. (1985). Having money and delinquent involvement: The neglect of power in delinquency theory. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 12, 171–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854885012002002
    Cummings, C., Gordon, J.R., & Marlatt, G.A., (1980). Relapse: Strategies of prevention and prediction. In W.R.Miller (ed.), The addictive behaviors. Oxford: Pergamon.
    Cushman, P. (1974). Detoxification of rehabilitated methadone patients: Frequency and predictors of long term success. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1, 393–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952997409011032
    Cusson, M., & Pinsonneault, H.P. (1986). The decision to give up crime. In D.Cornish & R.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 72–82). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-4_5
    Cynn, V.E. H. (1992). Persistence and problem-solving skills in young male alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 57–62.
    Dalby, J.T. (1985). Criminal liability in children. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 27, 137–145.
    Daly, M., & Burton, R. (1983). Self-esteem and irrational beliefs: An exploratory investigation with implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 361–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.30.3.361
    Davidson, R., & Schwartz, G. (1976). The psychobiology of relaxation and related states: A multi-process theory. In D.I.Mostofsky (ed.), Behavior control and the modification of physiological activity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Davison, G.C., Tsujimoto, R., & Glaros, A. (1973). Attribution and the maintenance of behavior change in falling asleep. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 124–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034965
    de Bono, E. (1977). Lateral thinking: A textbook of creativity. Markham: Penguin.
    de Bono, E. (1981). CoRT thinking program. Toronto: Pergamon.
    de Lint, J. (1976). The etiology of alcoholism with specific reference to sociocultural factors. In M.W.Everett, J.O.Waddell, & D.B.Heath (eds.), Cross-cultural approaches to the study of alcohol: An introductory perspective (pp. 323–339). Paris: Mouton.
    del Porto, J.A., & Masur, J. (1984). The effects of alcohol, THC, and diazepam in two different social settings: A study with human volunteers. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavior, 9, 201–212.
    Denney, M.R., Baugh, J.L., & Hardt, H.D. (1991). Sobriety outcome after alcoholism treatment with biofeedback participation: A pilot inpatient study. International Journal of the Addictions, 26, 335–341.
    Denoff, M.S. (1988). An integrated analysis of the contributions made by irrational beliefs and parental interaction to adolescent drug abuse. International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 655–669.
    Dishion, T.J., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Patterson, G.R. (1984). The monitoring construct (OSLC technical report). (Available from OSLC, 207 East 5th, Suite 202, Eugene, OR 97401)
    Dobinson, I., & Ward, P. (1986). Heroin and property crime: An Australian perspective. Journal of Drug Issues, 16, 249–262.
    Doctor, R.M., & Polakow, R.L. (1973, August). A behavior modification program for adult probationers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal.
    Donovan, J.E., & Jessor, R. (1985). The structure of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 890–904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.6.890
    Douds, A.F., Engelsjord, M., & Collingwood, T.R. (1977). Behavior contracting with youthful offenders and their parents. Child Welfare, 56, 409–417.
    Drafters, R., & Anderson, G. (1982). Conditioned tolerance to the tachycardia effect of ethanol in humans. Psychopharmacology, 78, 365–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00433743
    Dusenbury, L., & Botvin, G.J. (1992). Substance abuse prevention: Competence enhancement and the development of positive life options. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 11, 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J069v11n03_02
    Eck, J.E., & Riccio, L.J. (1979). Relationship between reported crime rates and victimization survey results: An empirical and analytical study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 7, 293–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2352%2879%2990064-3
    Eckerman, W.C., Bates, J.D., Rachal, J.V., & Poole, W.K. (1971). Drug usage and arrest charges: A study of drug usage and arrest charges among arrestees in six metropolitan areas of the United States (Final report BNDD Contract No. J-70-35). Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration.
    Egger, G.J., Webb, R.A. J., & Reynolds, I. (1978). Early adolescent antecedents of narcotic abuse. International Journal of the Addictions, 13, 773–781.
    Einhorn, H.J., & Hogarth, R.M. (1978). Confidence in judgment: Persistence in the illusion of validity. Psychological Review, 85, 395–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.85.5.395
    Elliott, D.S., Ageton, S.S., & Canter, R.J. (1979). An integral theoretical perspective on delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 3–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242787901600102
    Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.
    Emmelkamp, P.M. G. (1986). Behavior therapy with adults. In S.L.Garfield & A.E.Bergin (eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 385–442). New York: John Wiley.
    Emmelkamp, P.M. G., & Heeres, H. (1988). Drug addiction and parental rearing style: A controlled study. International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 207–216.
    Erickson, P.G. (1976). Deterrence and deviance: The example of Canadian prohibition. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 67, 222–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142943
    Eriksen, L., Bjornstad, S., & Gertestam, K.G. (1986). Social skills training in groups for alcoholics: One-year treatment outcome for groups and individuals. Addictive Behaviors, 11, 309–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2886%2990058-4
    Fagan, J., Wcis, J.G., & Cheng, Y.-T. (1990). Delinquency and substance abuse among inner-city students. Journal of Drug Issues, 20, 351–402.
    Fagan, J., & Wexler, S. (1987). Family origins of violent delinquents. Criminology, 25, 643–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00814.x
    Farley, F. (1986, May). The big T in personality. Psychology Today, pp. 44–52.
    Farrell, B. (1987). AIDS patients: Values in conflict. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 10, 74–85.
    Fattah, E.H. (1982). A critique of deterrence research with particular reference to the economic approach. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 24, 79–90.
    Faupel, C.E. (1985). A theoretical model for socially oriented drug treatment policy. Journal of Drug Education, 15, 189–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/CY65-RK15-VTWE-4T5R
    Faupel, C.E. (1987). Heroin use and criminal careers. Qualitative Sociology, 10, 115–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988524
    Faupel, C.E., & Klockars, C.B. (1987). Drugs-crime connections: Elaborations from the life histories of hard-core heroin addicts. Social Problems, 34, 54–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800729
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1990). Crime in the United States, 1989. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Feeney, F. (1986). Robbers as decision-makers. In D.B.Cornish & R.V.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 53–71). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-4_4
    Felson, M., & Cohen, L.E. (1977). Criminal acts and community structure: A routine activity approach (Working Paper in Applied Social Statistics). Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois, Department of Sociology.
    Felson, R.B., Ribner, S.A., & Siegel, M.S. (1984). Age and the effect of third parties during criminal violence. Sociology and Social Research, 68, 452–462.
    Felson, R.B., & Steadman, H.J. (1983). Situational factors in disputes leading to criminal violence. Criminology, 21, 59–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1983.tb00251.x
    Field, G. (1985). The cornerstone program: A client outcome study. Federal Probation, 49, 50–55.
    Fillmore, K.M. (1988). Alcohol use across the life course: A critical review of 70 years of international research. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.
    Finn, P.R., & Pihl, R.O. (1987). Men at high risk for alcoholism: The effect of alcohol on cardiovascular response to unavoidable shock. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 230–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.96.3.230
    Fisher, J.D., & Farina, A. (1979). Consequences of beliefs about the nature of mental disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 320–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.88.3.320
    Franklin, D. (1986). A comparison of the effectiveness of values clarification presented as a personal computer system versus a traditional therapy group: A pilot study. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 6, 39–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J004v06n03_04
    Fraser, M.W., Hawkins, J.D., & Howard, M.O. (1988). Parent training for delinquency prevention. Family Perspectives in Child and Youth Services, 11, 93–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J024v11n01_06
    Freedman, B.J., Rosenthal, L., Donahoe, C.P., Schlundt, D.G., & McFall, R.M. (1978). A social behavioral analysis of skill deficits in delinquent and nondeliquent adolescent boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1448–1462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.6.1448
    Friedman, A.S., Pomcrance, E., Sanders, R., Santo, Y., & Utada, A. (1980). The structure and problems of the families of adolescent drug abusers. Contemporary Drug Problems, 9, 327–356.
    Frykholm, B. (1979). Termination of the drug career: An interview study of 58 ex-addicts. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 59, 370–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1979.tb04480.x
    Garofalo, J. (1987). Reassessing the lifestyle model of criminal victimization. In M.Gottfredson & T.Hirschi (eds.), Positive criminology (pp. 23–42). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gawin, F.H., & Ellinwood, E.H. (1988). Abstinence symptomatology and psychiatric diagnosis in cocaine abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 107–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800020013003
    Gendreau, P., & Gendreau, L.P. (1970). The “addiction-prone” personality: A study of Canadian heroin addicts. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 2, 18–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0082707
    Gendreau, P., & Ross, R.R. (1987). Revivification of rehabilitation: Evidence from the 1980s. Justice Quarterly, 4, 349–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089411
    Gibbs, J.J., & Shelly, P.L. (1982). Life in the fast lane: A retrospective view by commercial thieves. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 19, 299–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242788201900210
    Gibbs, J.P. (1975). Crime, punishment, and deterrence. New York: Elsevier.
    Gillmore, M.R., Catalano, R.F., Morrison, D.M., Wells, E.A., Iritani, B., & Hawkins, J.D. (1990). Racial differences in acceptability and availability of drugs and early initiation of substance use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 16, 185–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952999009001583
    Giordano, P.C., Cernkovich, S.A., & Pugh, M.D. (1986). Friendships and delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 1170–1202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228390
    Goldfried, M.R., & Robins, C. (1982). On the facilitation of self-efficacy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 361–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01184004
    Goldman, F. (1981). Drug abuse, crime, and economics: The dismal limits of social choice. In J.A.Inciardi (ed.), The drugs-crime connection (pp. 155–181). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Goldsmith, H.H., Bradshaw, D.L., & Rieser-Danner, L.A. (1986). Temperamental dimensions as potential developmental influences on attachment. In J.V.Lerner & R.M.Lerner (eds.), New directions for child development: Temperament and psychosocial interaction in infancy and childhood (pp. 5–34). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Goldsmith, H.H., & Campos, J.J. (1982). Toward a theory of infant temperament. In R.N.Emde & R.J.Harmon (eds.), The development of attachment and affiliative systems (pp. 161–193). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-4076-8_13
    Goldstein, P.J. (1981). Getting over: Economic alternatives to predatory crime among street drug users. In J.A.Inciardi (ed.), The drugs-crime connection (pp. 67–84). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Goldstein, P.J. (1986). Homicide related to drug traffic. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 62, 509–516.
    Goodwin, D.W., Crane, B., & Guze, S.B. (1971). Felons who drink: An 8-year follow-up. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 32, 136–147.
    Gould, L.C. (1969). Juvenile entrepreneurs. American Journal of Sociology, 74, 710–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/224721
    Grant, B.F., Harford, T.C., & Grigson, M.B. (1988). Stability of alcohol consumption among youth: A national longitudinal survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49, 253–260.
    Grasmick, H.G., & Green, D.E. (1980). Legal punishment, social disapproval and internalization as inhibitors of illegal behavior. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 71, 325–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142704
    Green, B.T. (1981). An examination of the relationship between crime and substance abuse/use in a drug/alcohol treatment population. International Journal of the Addictions, 16, 627–645.
    Guerra, N.G. (1989). Consequential thinking and self-reported delinquency in high-school youth. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 16, 440–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854889016004004
    Hagnell, O., Lanke, J., Rorsman, B., & Ohman, R. (1986). Predictors of alcoholism in the Lundby study: II. Personality traits as risk factors for alcoholism. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Science, 235, 192–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00379972
    Hamlin, J.E. (1988). The misplaced role of rational choice in neutralization theory. Criminology, 26, 425–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00849.x
    Harackiewicz, J.M., Sansone, C., Blair, L.W., Epstein, J.A., & Manderlink, G. (1987). Attributional processes in behavior change and maintenance: Smoking cessation and continued abstinence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 372–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.372
    Hare, R.D. (1978). Electrodermal and cardiovascular correlates of psychopathy. In R.D.Hare & D.Schalling (eds.), Psychopathic behavior (pp. 107–144). New York: John Wiley.
    Hare, R.D. (1982). Psychopathy and physiological activity during anticipation of an aversive stimulus in a distraction paradigm. Psychophysiology, 19, 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1982.tb02559.x
    Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., Gillmore, M.R., & Wells, E.A. (1989). Skills training for drug abusers: Generalization, maintenance, and effects on drug use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 559–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.4.559
    Henderson, M., & Hewstone, M. (1984). Prison inmate's explanations for interpersonal violence: Accounts and attributions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 789–794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.789
    Henningfield, J.E., & Goldberg, S.R. (1983). Control of behavior by intravenous nicotine injections in human subjects. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 19, 1021–1026. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057%2883%2990409-4
    Henshel, R.L., & Carey, S. (1975). Deviance, deterrence and knowledge of sanctions. In R.L.Henshel & R.A.Silverman (eds.), Perceptions in criminology (pp. 54–73). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Himle, D., Thyer, B., & Papsdorf, J. (1982). Relationships between rational beliefs and anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 219–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01183895
    Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227905
    Hollin, C.R., & Henderson, M. (1984). Social skills training with young offenders: False expectations and the “failure of treatment.” Behavioral Psychotherapy, 22, 331–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0141347300011393
    Hollin, C.R., Huff, G.J., Clarkson, F., & Edmondson, A.E. (1982). An evaluation of social skills training with young offenders in a borstal. Paper presented at the International Conference on Psychology and the Law, Swansea, Wales.
    Hook, J.G., & Cook, T.D. (1979). Equity theory and the cognitive ability of children. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 429–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.429
    Hough, M. (1987). Offenders’ choice of target: Findings from victim surveys. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 355–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01066836
    Hover, S., & Gaffney, L.R. (1991). The relationship between social skills and adolescent drinking. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 26, 207–214.
    Hser, Y., Anglin, M.D., & McGlothlin, W.H. (1987). Sex differences in addict careers: I. Initiation of use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 13, 33–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952998709001499
    Hudleby, J.D. (1986). Personality and the prediction of delinquency and drug use. British Journal of Criminology, 26, 129–146.
    Inciardi, J.A. (1979). Heroin use and street crime. Crime & Delinquency, 25, 335–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001112877902500304
    Inciardi, J.A., & Pottieger, A.E. (1991). Kids, crack, and crime. Journal of Drug Issues, 21, 257–270.
    Irwin, J. (1970). The felon. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Jarvis, G., & Parker, H. (1989). Young heroin users and crime: How do the “new users” finance their habits?British Journal of Criminology, 29, 175–185.
    Jeffrey, R., & Woopert, S. (1974). Work furlough as an alternative to incarceration: An assessment of its effects on recidivism and social cost. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 65, 404–415.
    Johnson, B.D., & Goldberg, R.T. (1983). Vocational and social rehabilitation of delinquents: A study of experimentals and controls. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services and Rehabilitation, 6, 43–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J264v06n03_04
    Johnson, R.E., Marcos, A.C., & Bahr, S.J. (1987). The role of peers in the complex etiology of adolescent drug use. Criminology, 25, 323–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00800.x
    Johnston, L.D., Bachman, J.G., & O'Malley, P.M. (1981). Marijuana decriminalization: The impact on youth 1975–1980 (Monitoring the Future, Occasional Paper 13). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.
    Kandel, D.B. (1978). Convergencies in prospective longitudinal surveys of drug use in normal populations. In D.B.Kandel (ed.), Longitudinal research on drug use: Empirical findings and methodological issues (pp. 3–38). Washington, DC: Hemisphere-Wiley.
    Kandel, D.B., & Adler, D. (1982). Socialization into marijuana use among French adolescents: A cross-cultural comparison with the U.S. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 295–309.
    Kaplan, H.B., Johnson, R.J., & Bailey, C.A. (1986). Self-rejection and the explanation of deviance: Refinement and elaboration of a latent structure. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 110–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786723
    Kaplan, H.B., Martin, S.S., & Robbins, C. (1984). Pathways to adolescent drug use: Self-derogation, peer influence, weakening social control, and early substance use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 270–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136425
    Katz, J. (1979). Concerted ignorance: The social construction of a cover-up. Urban Life, 8, 295–316.
    Kazdin, A.E. (1985). Treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
    Kennedy, L.W., & Forde, D.R. (1990). Routine activities and crime: An analysis of victimization in Canada. Criminology, 28, 137–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1990.tb01321.x
    Kernberg, O.F. (1972). Early ego integration and object relations. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 193, 233–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1972.tb27840.x
    Khatami, M., Mintz, J., & O'Brien, C.P. (1978). Biofeedback mediated relaxation in narcotic addicts. Behavior Therapy, 9, 968–969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2878%2980040-9
    Kissin, B., Schenker, V., & Schenker, A. (1959). The acute effects of ethyl alcohol and chlorpromazine on certain physiological functions in alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 20, 480–492.
    Kitano, H.H. L., Chi, I., Rhee, S., Law, C.K., & Lubben, J.E. (1992). Norms and alcohol consumption: Japanese in Japan, Hawaii and California. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 33–39.
    Larson, D.E., & Abu-Laban, B. (1968). Norm qualities and deviant drinking behavior. Social Problems, 15, 441–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799832
    Leigh, B.C. (1989). In search of the seven dwarves: Issues of measurement and meaning in alcohol expectancy research. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 361–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.361
    Lerner, M.J. (1970). The desire for justice and reactions to victims. In J.Macaulay & L.Berkowitz (eds.), Altruism and helping behavior: Social psychological studies of some antecedents and consequences (pp. 205–229). New York: Academic Press.
    Lewis, C.E., & Bucholz, K.K. (1991). Alcoholism, antisocial behavior and family history. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 177–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01768.x
    Lewis, C.E., Cloninger, C.R., & Pais, J. (1982). Sociopathy and alcoholism in a criminal population. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 6, 303.
    Lewis, C.E., Rice, J.P., & Helzer, J.E. (1983). Psychiatric diagnostic interactions: Alcoholism and antisocial personality. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, 105–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198302000-00007
    Linden, R., & Perry, L. (1982). The effectiveness of prison education programs. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services and Rehabilitation, 6, 43–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J264v06n04_04
    Linkenbach, J. (1990). Adlerian techniques for substance abuse prevention and intervention. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research, and Practice, 46, 203–207.
    Linquist, C.M., Lindsay, T.S., & White, G.D. (1979). Assessment of assertiveness in drug abusers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 676–679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197907%2935:3%3C676::AID-JCLP2270350336%3E3.0.CO;2-6
    Lochman, J.E., Burch, P.R., Curry, J.F., & Lampron, L.B. (1984). Treatment and generalization effects of cognitive-behavioral and goal-setting interventions with aggressive boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 915–916. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.915
    Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2890%2990105-J
    Loftin, C., McDowall, D., & Boudouris, J. (1989). Economic change and homicide in Detroit, 1926–1979. In T.R.Gurr (ed.), Violence in America: Vol. 1. The history of crime (pp. 163–177). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Ludwig, A.M. (1985). Cognitive processes associated with “spontaneous” recovery from alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 53–58.
    MacDonald, J.E., & Gifford, R. (1989). Territorial cues and defensible space theory: The burglar's point of view. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9, 193–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2889%2980034-9
    Maddux, J.F., & Desmond, D.P. (1982). Residence relocation inhibits opioid dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1313–1317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290110065011
    Maguire, K., & Flanagan, T.J. (1991). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics: 1990. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Main, M., Tomasini, L., & Tolan, W. (1979). Differences among mothers of infants judged to differ in security. Developmental Psychology, 15, 472–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.15.4.472
    Marcos, A.C., Bahr, S.J., & Johnson, R.E. (1986). Test of a bonding/association theory of adolescent drug use. Social Forces, 65, 135–161.
    Marlatt, G.A. (1978). Craving for alcohol, loss of control, and relapse: A cognitive behavioral analysis. In P.C.Kendall & S.P.Hollon (eds.), Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research and procedures. New York: Plenum.
    Marlatt, G.A., & Gordon, J.R. (1980). Determinants of relapse: Implications for the maintenance of behavior change. In P.O.Davidson & S.M.Davidson (eds.), Behavioral medicine: Changing health lifestyles (pp. 410–472). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Marlatt, G.A., & Gordon, J.R. (eds.). (1985). Relapse prevention: Maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. New York: Guilford.
    Marlatt, G.A., & Marques, J.K. (1977). Meditation, self-control and alcohol abuse. In R.B.Stuart (ed.), Behavioral self-management: Strategies, techniques and outcomes. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Matsueda, R.L. (1988). The current state of differential association theory. Crime & Delinquency, 34, 277–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128788034003005
    Maultsby, M.C. (1975). Help yourself to happiness through rational self counseling. New York: Institute for Rational Living.
    Mayhew, P.M., Clarke, R.V., Sturman, A., & Hough, J.M. (1976). Crime as opportunity. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    McAuIiffe, W.E., & Ch'ien, J.M. N. (1986). Recovery training and self-help: A relapse-prevention program for treated opiate addicts. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 3, 9–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472%2886%2990003-6
    McBride, D.C., Burgman-Habermehl, C., Alpert, J., & Chitwood, D.D. (1986). Drugs and homicide. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 62, 497–508.
    McClelland, D.C., Davis, W.N., Kalin, R., & Wanner, R. (1972). The drinking man: A theory of human motivation. New York: Free Press.
    McCord, J. (1988). Parental behavior in the cycle of aggression. Psychiatry, 51, 14–23.
    McMurran, M., & Whitman, J. (1990). Strategies of self-control in male young offenders who have reduced their alcohol consumption without formal intervention. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 115–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2890%2990002-O
    Mednick, S.A., Gabrielli, W.F., & Hutchings, B. (1984). Genetic influences in criminal convictions: Evidence from an adoption cohort. Science, 224, 891–894. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.6719119
    Mednick, S.A., & Kandel, E.S. (1988). Congenital determinants of violence. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 16, 101–109.
    Meier, R.F., & Johnson, W.T. (1977). Deterrence as social control: The legal and extralegal production of conformity. American Sociological Review, 42, 292–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094606
    Menard, S., & Huizinga, D. (1989). Age, period, and cohort size effects on self-reported alcohol, marijuana, and polydrug use: Results from the National Youth Survey. Social Science Research, 18, 174–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0049-089X%2889%2990018-5
    Meyer, R.E., & Mirin, S.M. (1979). The heroin stimulus: Implications for a theory of addiction. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-3426-2
    Meyers, E.J. (1980). American heroin policy: Some alternatives. In Drug Abuse Council, The facts about “drug abuse” (pp. 190–247). New York: Free Press.
    Miller, D., & Jang, M. (1977). Children of alcoholics: A 20-year longitudinal study. Social Work Research Abstracts, 13, 23–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/swra/13.4.23
    Miller, L. (1991). Predicting relapse and recovery in alcoholism and addiction: Neuropsychology, personality, and cognitive style. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 8, 277–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472%2891%2990051-B
    Ministry of Welfare, Health, and Cultural Affairs. (1985). Policy on drug users. Rijswijk, Netherlands: Author.
    Mischel, W. (1974). Processes in delay of gratification. Advances in Experimental Psychology, 7, 249–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601%2808%2960039-8
    Moore, M.S. (1977). Buy and bust. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Mulford, H.A. (1970). Education and drinking behavior. In G.L.Maddox (ed.), The domesticated drug: Drinking among collegians (pp. 81–97). New Haven, CT: College & University Press.
    Murphy, T.J., Pagano, R.R., & Marlatt, G.A. (1986). Lifestyle modification with heavy alcohol drinkers: Effects of aerobic exercise and meditation. Addictive Behaviors, 11, 175–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2886%2990043-2
    Nakken, C. (1988). The addictive personality: Roots, rituals, and recovery. Center City, MN: Hazelden.
    Nathan, P.E. (1988). The addictive personality is the behavior of the addict. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 183–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.2.183
    Nelson, R.E. (1977). Irrational beliefs in depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 1190–1191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.45.6.1190
    Newcomb, M.D., & Bentler, P.M. (1988). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impacts on the lives of young adults. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Newcomb, M.D., Fahy, B.N., & Skager, R. (1988). Correlates of cocaine use among adolescents. Journal of Drug Issues, 18, 327–354.
    Newcomb, M.D., Maddahian, E., & Bentler, P.M. (1986). Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: Concurrent and longitudinal analyses. American Journal of Public Health, 76, 525–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.76.5.525
    Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan.
    O'Brien, C.P., Childress, R., McLellan, T., & Ehrman, R. (1990). Integrating systematic cue exposure with standard treatment in recovering drug dependent patients. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 355–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2890%2990045-Y
    O'Connor, L.E., Berry, J.W., Morrison, A., & Brown, S. (1992). Retrospective reports of psychiatric symptoms before, during, and after drug use in a recovering population. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 24, 65–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1992.10471621
    Oei, T.P. S., & Jackson, P.R. (1982). Social skills and cognitive behavioral approaches to the treatment of problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 532–547.
    Ogloff, J.R., & Wong, S. (1990). Electrodermal and cardiovascular evidence of a coping response in psychopaths. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 231–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854890017002006
    O'Neil, J.A. (1992). Drug use forecasting: 1991 annual report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
    Orcutt, J.D. (1987). Differential association and marijuana use: A closer look at Sutherland (with a little help from Becker). Criminology, 25, 341–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00801.x
    Orsagh, T., & Witte, A.D. (1981). Economic status and crime: Implications for offender rehabilitation. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72, 1055–1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143275
    Osgood, D.W., Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., & Bachman, J.G. (1988). The generality of deviance in late adolescence and early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 53, 81–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095734
    Panella, D.H., Cooper, P.F., & Henggeler, S.W. (1982). Peer relations in adolescence. In S.W.Henggeler (ed.), Delinquency and adolescent psychopathology: A family ecological systems approach (pp. 139–161). Littleton, MA: Wright-PSG.
    Parker, H., & Newcombe, R. (1987). Heroin use and acquisitive crime in an English community. British Journal of Sociology, 38, 331–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/590692
    Paternoster, R. (1987). The deterrent effect of the perceived certainty and severity of punishment: A review of the evidence and issues. Justice Quarterly, 4, 173–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089271
    Paternoster, R. (1989). Decisions to participate in and desist from four types of common delinquency: Deterrence and the rational choice perspective. Law and Society Review, 23, 7–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3053879
    Paternoster, R., & Iovanni, L. (1986). The deterrent effect of perceived severity: A reexamination. Social Forces, 64, 751–777.
    Patterson, G.R., & Dishion, T.J. (1985). Contributions of families and peers to delinquency. Criminology, 23, 63–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00326.x
    Pearson, F.S., & Weiner, N.A. (1985). Criminology: Toward an integration of criminological theories. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76, 116–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143355
    Perry, D.G., Perry, L.C., & Rasmusson, P. (1986). Cognitive social learning mediators of aggression. Child Development, 57, 700–711. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130347
    Phillips, L., & Votey, H.L. (1987). The influence of police interventions and alternative income sources on the dynamic process of choosing crime as a career. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 251–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01063831
    Piaget, J. (1963). The attainment of invariants and reversible operations in the development of thinking. Social Research, 30, 283–299.
    Pickens, R.W., & Svikis, D.S. (1988). The twin method in the study of vulnerability to drug abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series, 89, 41–51.
    Piliavin, I., Gartner, R., Thornton, C., & Matsueda, R.L. (1986). Crime, deterrence, and rational choice. American Sociological Review, 51, 101–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095480
    Pithers, W.D., Kashima, K., Cumming, G.F., Beal, L.S., & Buell, M.M. (1987). Relapse prevention of sexual aggression. Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences, New York.
    Pithers, W.D., Marques, J.K., Gibat, C.C., & Marlatt, G.A. (1983). Relapse prevention with sexual aggressives: A self-control model of treatment and maintenance of change. In J.G.Greer & I.R.Stuart (eds.), The sexual aggressor: Current perspectives on treatment (pp. 214–239). New York: Van Nostrand.
    Quinsey, V.L., & Marshall, W.L. (1983). Procedures for reducing inappropriate sexual arousal. In J.G.Greer & I.R.Stuart (eds.), The sexual aggressor: Current perspectives on treatment (pp. 267–289). New York: Van Nostrand.
    Reitman, J. (1974). Without surreptitious rehearsal, information in short-term memory decays. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 365–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371%2874%2980015-0
    Rist, F., & Watzl, H. (1983). Self-assessment of relapse risk and assertiveness in relation to treatment outcome of female alcoholism. Addictive Behaviors, 8, 121–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2883%2990005-9
    Robins, L.N., Davis, D.H., & Goodwin, D.W. (1974). Drug use by U.S. Army enlisted men in Vietnam: A follow-up on their return home. American Journal of Epidemiology, 99, 235–249.
    Rodin, J. (1976). Density, perceived choice, and response to controllable and uncontrollable outcomes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 564–578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2876%2990035-4
    Rohrer, J.H., & Edmonson, M.S. (eds.). (1960). The eighth generation: Cultures and personalities of New Orleans Negroes. New York: Harper.
    Rohsenow, D.J., Beach, L.R., & Marlatt, G.A. (1978, July). A decision-theory model of relapse. Paper presented at the summer conference of the Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Rohsenow, D.J., Monti, P.M., Zwick, W.R., Nirenberg, T.D., Liepman, M.R., Binkoff, J.A., & Abrams, D.B. (1989). Irrational beliefs, urges to drink and drinking among alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 461–464.
    Rokeach, M. (1983). A value approach to the prevention and reduction of drug abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series, 47, 172–194.
    Rokeach, M., & Ball-Rokeach, S.J. (1989). Stability and change in American value priorities. American Psychologist, 44, 775–784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.5.775
    Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., & Schoenbach, C. (1989). Self-esteem and adolescent problems: Modeling reciprocal effects. American Sociological Review, 54, 1004–1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095720
    Ross, S. (1973). A study of living and residence patterns of former heroin addicts as a result of their participation in a methadone treatment program. In Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on Methadone Treatment (pp. 554–561). New York: National Association for the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics.
    Rowe, D.C., & Gulley, B.L. (1992). Sibling effects on substance use and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 217–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01103.x
    Ruby, C.T. (1984). Defusing the hostile ex-offender: Rational behavior training. Emotional First Aid, 1, 17–22.
    Rutter, M., Yule, B., Quinton, D., Rowlands, O., Yule, W., & Berger, M. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas: III. Some factors accounting for area differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 520–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.126.6.520
    Rychtarik, R.G., Prue, D.M., Rapp, S.R., & King, A.C. (1992). Self-efficacy, aftercare and relapse in a treatment program for alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 435–440.
    Sarason, I.G. (1968). Verbal learning, modeling, and juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 23, 254–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0026212
    Sarason, I.G., & Sarason, B.R. (1981). Teaching cognitive and social skills to high school students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 908–918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.6.908
    Sarbin, T.R., Allen, V.L., & Rutherford, E.E. (1965). Social reinforcement, socialization, and chronic delinquency. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 179–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1965.tb00461.x
    Schimerman, S.R. (1974). Project evaluation report: Operation identification. St. Louis, MO: Law Enforcement Assistance Council.
    Schonfeld, L., Rohrer, G.E., Dupree, L.W., & Thomas, M. (1989). Antecedents of relapse and recent substance use. Community Mental Health Journal, 25, 245–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00754441
    Schuckit, M.A. (1987). Biological vulnerability to alcoholism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 301–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.301
    Seashore, M., Haberfield, S., Irwin, J., & Baker, K. (1976). Prisoner education: Project Newgate and other college programs. New York: Praeger.
    Seattle Law and Justice Planning Office. (1975). Burglary reduction program (Final report prepared for the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration). Seattle, WA: Author.
    Shannon, L.W. (1982). Assessing the relationship of adult criminal careers to juvenile careers: A summary. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Shapiro, A.P., & Nathan, P.E. (1986). Human tolerance to alcohol: The role of Pavlovian conditioning processes. Psychopharmacology, 88, 90–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00310519
    Shapiro, D.H., & Walsh, R.N. (eds.). (1984). Meditation: Classic and contemporary perspectives. New York: Aldine.
    Shedler, J., & Block, J. (1990). Adolescent drug use and psychological health: A longitudinal inquiry. American Psychologist, 45, 612–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.5.612
    Sheldon, W. (1954). Atlas of men. New York: Harper.
    Sher, K. (1985). Subjective effects of alcohol: The influence of setting and individual differences in alcohol expectancies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 137–146.
    Shorkey, C., & Sutton-Smith, K. (1983). Reliability and validity of the Rational Behavior Inventory with a clinical population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 34–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28198301%2939:1%3C34::AID-JCLP2270390107%3E3.0.CO;2-G
    Shover, N. (1983). The later stages of ordinary property offender careers. Social Problems, 31, 208–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800212
    Siegel, R.A. (1978). Probability of punishment and suppression of behavior in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 514–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.87.5.514
    Siegel, R.K. (1984). Cocaine aroma in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 61–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004714-198402000-00033
    Siegel, S. (1986). Environmental modulation of tolerance: Evidence from benzodiazepine research. In H.H.Frey, W.P.Koella, W.Forscher, & H.Meinardi (eds.), Tolerance to beneficial and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (pp. 89–100). New York: Raven.
    Siegel, S. (1988). Drug anticipation and the treatment of dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series, 84, 1–24.
    Siegel, S., Hinson, R.E., Krank, M.D., & McCully, J. (1982). Heroin “overdose” death: The contribution of drug-associated environmental cues. Science, 216, 436–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7200260
    Silberman, C.E. (1978). Criminal violence, criminal justice. New York: Random House.
    Simo, S., & Perez, J. (1991). Sensation seeking and antisocial behavior in a junior student sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 965–966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2891%2990186-F
    Simons, R.L., Conger, R.D., & Whitbeck, L.B. (1988). A multistage social learning model of the influences of family and peers upon adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Drug Issues, 18, 293–315.
    Simons, R.L., & Robertson, J.F. (1989). The impact of parenting factors, deviant peers, and coping style upon adolescent drug use. Family Relations, 38, 273–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585052
    Simons, R.L., Robertson, J.F., & Downs, W.R. (1989). The nature of the association between parental rejection and delinquent behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 297–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02139043
    Simpson, D.D., & Marsh, K.L. (1986). Relapse and recovery among opioid addicts 12 years after treatment. NIDA Research Monograph Series, 72, 86–103.
    Slovic, P., Fischoff, B., & Lichtenstein, S. (1977). Behavioral decision theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 28, 1–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.28.020177.000245
    Smith, G.T., Roehling, P.V., Goldman, M.S., & Christiansen, B.A. (1987, August). Alcohol expectancies predict adolescent drinking: A longitudinal study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Smith, R.R. (1980). Longitudinal behavioral assessment of work release. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services and Rehabilitation, 5, 31–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J264v05n01_04
    Smith, T., Houston, B., & Zurawski, R. (1984). Irrational beliefs and the arousal of emotional distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 3, 190–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.31.2.190
    Speckart, G., & Anglin, M.D. (1986). Narcotics use and crime: An overview of recent research advances. Contemporary Drug Problems, 13, 741–769.
    Spence, S.H., & Marzillier, J.S. (1981). Social skills training with adolescent male offenders: II. Short term, long term, and generalized effects. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 349–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2881%2990056-5
    Stabenau, J.R. (1986). Basic research on heredity and alcohol: Implications for clinical application. Social Biology, 32, 297–321.
    Stall, R., & Biernacki, P. (1986). Spontaneous remission from the problematic use of substances: An inductive model derived from a comparative analysis of the alcohol, opiate, tobacco, and food/obesity literatures. International Journal of the Addictions, 21, 1–23.
    Stephens, R.C., & Smith, R.B. (1976). Copping and caveat emptor: The street addict as consumer. New York: New York State Office of Drug Abuse Services, Bureau of Social Science Research.
    Stermac, L.E., & Segel, Z.V. (1989). Adult sexual contact with children: An examination of cognitive factors. Behavior Therapy, 20, 573–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2889%2980135-2
    Stewart, J.K. (1986). The urban strangler: How crime causes poverty in the inner city. Police Review, 37, 6–10.
    Stimson, G.V., & Oppenheimer, E. (1982). Heroin addiction: Treatment and control in Britain. London: Tavistock.
    Strayer, D.L., & Kramer, A.R. (1990). Attentional requirements of automatic and controlled processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 67–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.16.1.67
    Stumphauzer, J.S. (1972). Increased delay of gratification in young prison inmates through imitation of high delay peer models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 10–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032064
    Sutherland, E.H. (1939). Principles of criminology (
    3rd ed.
    ). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
    Sutherland, E.H., & Cressey, D.R. (1978). Principles of criminology (
    10th ed.
    ). New York: Harper & Row.
    Sutker, P.B., Moan, C.E., Goist, K.C., & Allain, A.N. (1984). MMPI subtypes and antisocial behaviors in adolescent alcohol and drug abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 13, 235–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716%2884%2990064-4
    Sykes, G.M., & Matza, D. (1970). Techniques of delinquency. In M.E.Wolfgang, L.Savitz, & N.Johnston (eds.), The sociology of crime and delinquency (
    2nd ed
    , pp. 292–299). New York: John Wiley.
    Thompson, R.A. (1986). Temperament, emotionality, and infant cognition. In J.V.Lerner & R.M.Lerner (eds.), Temperament and social interaction in infants and children (pp. 35–53). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Thornberry, T.P. (1987). Toward an interactional theory of delinquency. Criminology, 25, 863–892. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00823.x
    Tittle, C.R., Burke, M.J., & Jackson, E.F. (1986). Modeling Sutherland's theory of differential association: Toward an empirical clarification. Social Forces, 65, 405–432.
    Tittle, C.R., Villemez, W.J., & Smith, D.A. (1978). The myth of social class and criminality: An empirical assessment of the empirical evidence. American Sociological Review, 43, 643–656. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094541
    Tuchfeld, B.S. (1981). Spontaneous remission in alcoholics: Empirical observations and theoretical implications. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42, 626–641.
    Twentyman, C.T., Jensen, M., & Kloss, J.D. (1978). Social skills training for the complex offender: Employment-seeking skills. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 320–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197804%2934:2%3C320::AID-JCLP2270340211%3E3.0.CO;2-Y
    Vaillant, G.E. (1983). The natural history of alcoholism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Vaillant, G.E., & Milofsky, E.S. (1982). Natural history of male alcoholism: IV. Paths to recovery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 127–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290020001001
    Van Voorhis, P., Cullen, F.T., Mathers, R.A., & Garner, C.C. (1988). The impact of family structure and quality of delinquency: A comparative assessment of structural and functional factors. Criminology, 26, 235–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00840.x
    Venables, P.H. (1987). Autonomic nervous system factors in criminal behavior. In S.A.Mednick, T.E.Moffitt, & S.A.Stack (eds.), The causes of crime: New biological approaches (pp. 110–136). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753282.009
    Venables, P.H., Mednick, S.A., Schulsinger, F., Raman, A.C., Bell, B., Dalais, J.C., & Fletcher, R.P. (1978). Screening for risk of mental illness. In G.Serban (ed.), Cognitive defects in development of mental illness (pp. 273–303). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Votey, H.L. (1986). Substance abuse and crime in Sweden: Econometric estimates of linkages. In P.Shapiro & H.L.Votey (eds.), Econometric analysis of crime in Sweden (pp. 23–34). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Justice.
    Waldo, G.P., & Chiricos, T.G. (1972). Perceived penal sanctions and self-reported criminality: A neglected approach to deterrence research. Social Problems, 19, 522–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799929
    Waldorf, D. (1976). Life without heroin: Some social adjustments during long-term periods of voluntary abstention. In R.H.Coobs, L.J.Fry, & P.G.Lewis (eds.), Socialization in drug abuse (pp. 365–384). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
    Walsh, A. (1985). An evaluation of the effect of adult basic education on rearrest rates among probationers. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services and Rehabilitation, 9, 69–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J264v09n04_07
    Walsh, D.P. (1978). Shoplifting: Controlling a major crime. London: Macmillan.
    Walsh, D. (1986). Victim selection procedures among economic criminals: The rational choice perspective. In D.B.Cornish & R.V.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 39–52). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-4_3
    Walters, G.D. (1990). The criminal lifestyle: Patterns of serious criminal conduct. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Walters, G.D. (1992a). Drug-seeking behavior: Disease or lifestyle?Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 139–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.23.2.139
    Walters, G.D. (1992b). Foundations of criminal science: Vol. 1. The development of knowledge. New York: Praeger.
    Walters, G.D. (1992c). A meta-analysis of the gene-crime relationship. Criminology, 30, 595–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01118.x
    Walters, G.D. (1994). The drug lifestyle: One pattern or several?Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 8 (1), 8–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.8.1.8
    Walters, G.D., & White, T.W. (1987). Examining lifestyle criminality: The Leavenworth 500. Unpublished manuscript, United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth, KS.
    Walters, G.D., & White, T.W. (1989a). Heredity and crime: Bad genes or bad research?Criminology, 27, 455–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb01042.x
    Walters, G.D., & White, T.W. (1989b). The thinking criminal: A cognitive model of lifestyle criminality. Criminal Justice Research Bulletin, 4 (4).
    Walters, G.D., & White, T.W. (1990). Attachment and social bonding in maximum and minimum security prison inmates. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 15, 54–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02887456
    Warr, M., & Stafford, M. (1991). The influence of delinquent peers: What they think or what they do?Criminology, 30, 851–865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01090.x
    Washton, A.M., & Gold, M.S. (1986). Recent trends in cocaine abuse: A view from the national hotline, “800-COCAINE.” Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 6, 31–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J251v06n02_04
    Watts, W.D., & Wright, L.S. (1990). The relationship of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other illegal drug use to delinquency among Mexican-American, black, and white adolescent males. Adolescence, 25, 171–181.
    Weaver, F.M., & Carroll, J.S. (1985). Crime perceptions in a natural setting by expert and novice shoplifters. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 349–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786696
    Wells, L.E., & Rankin, J.H. (1988). Direct parental controls and delinquency. Criminology, 26, 263–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00841.x
    Werch, C.E. (1990). Behavioral self-control strategies for deliberately limiting drinking among college students. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 119–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2890%2990015-P
    Wermuth, L., & Scheidt, S. (1986). Enlisting family support in drug treatment. Family Process, 25, 25–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1986.00025.x
    Werner, H. (1957). The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D.Harris (ed.), The concept of development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    West, D.J. (1982). Delinquency: Its roots, careers, and prospects. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    West, D.J., & Farrington, D.P. (1973). Who becomes delinquent?London: Heinemann.
    White, H.R., Johnson, V., & Garrison, C.G. (1985). Drug-crime nexus among adolescents and their peers. Deviant Behavior, 6, 183–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1985.9967669
    White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Earls, F., Robins, L., & Silva, P.A. (1990). How early can we tell? Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency. Criminology, 28, 507–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1990.tb01337.x
    Wilkins, D. (1964). Social deviance: Social policy, action and research. London: Tavistock.
    Wilson, J.Q., & Herrnstein, R.J. (1985). Crime and human nature. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Wood, M.D., Nagoshi, C.T., & Dennis, D.A. (1992). Alcohol norms and expectations as predictors of alcohol use and problems in a college student sample. American Journal of ‘Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18, 461–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952999209051042
    Woody, G.E., O'Brien, C.P., & Rickels, K. (1975). Depression and anxiety in heroin addicts: A placebo-controlled study of doxepin in combination with methadone. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 447–450.
    Yochelson, S., & Samenow, S.E. (1976). The criminal personality: Vol. 1. A profile for change. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Zacny, J.P., Bodker, B.K., & de Wit, H. (1992). Effects of setting on the subjective and behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in humans. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 27–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2892%2990050-6
    Zinberg, N.E. (1984). Drug, set, and setting: The basis for controlled intoxicant use. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    About the Author

    Glenn D. Walters has spent the past two years as a staff psychologist and coordinator of the substance abuse program at the Federal Correctional Institute in Schuylkill, Pennsylvania, an adult male medium security federal prison. After receiving a B.A. in psychology from Lebanon Valley College in 1976, an M.A. in clinical psychology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 1978, and a Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Texas Tech University in 1982, he completed a one-year internship at Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center in Fort Gordon, Georgia. Subsequent to his internship, he was assigned to the mental health directorate of the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he remained until his discharge from the military in August 1984. He then took a position with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, first at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, then at the Federal Correctional Institute in Fairton, New Jersey, and finally at the Federal Correctional Institution in Schuylkill. His current primary research interests include investigations into the genetic correlates of crime, attempts to improve criminal assessment, and extension of lifestyle theory to substance abuse, compulsive gambling, and other behaviors known to overlap with the criminal lifestyle.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website