Drawing and Painting: Children and Visual Representation
The author questions inherited wisdom about children's development in visual representation and explains different models of development in visual expression.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Painting in Action
- Some Questions
- Visual Representation and Expression
- Drawing and Language
- Scribbling and Babbling
- The Importance of Other People
- Painting Actions – Varying the Tempo and Direction
- Dynamic Patterns of Action
- Representing Shape and Movement
- Painting as a Patterned Dance in Space and Time
- Splattering Paint
- Chapter 2: Actions, Skills and Meaning
- Where Do Representations of Movement and Objects Come from?
- Conversations with Newborn Babies
- An Emotional Space between Caregiver and Baby
- Analysis and Discussion
- Babies and Movement
- Vertical Arc
- Horizontal Arc
- Reaching and Grasping
- Horizontal Arc and Push-Pull Used in Painting
- Chapter 3: The Beginning of Painting and Drawing
- Three Dimensions – Objects and People
- Two Dimensions
- First Painting
- Realising That Movements Make Marks
- Joel Begins to Draw and Paint
- Reasons Not Causes
- Chapter 4: Movement into Shape
- Separating and Combining Movement and Shapes
- A Family of Shapes
- Drawing Helps Us See and Understand
- Using Colour: Contrasts and Links
- The Importance of Marks and the Spaces between Them
- Points in Space
- Traditional Drawing Media and Electronic Paint
- Covering and Hiding
- Closed Shape
- Putting Shapes Together, Taking Them Apart and Putting Them Together Again
- Making Connections: Joining Things Together
- Combining Movements and Marks: Travelling Zigzags, Waves and Travelling Loops
- Different Movements have Different Results
- Combining Different Drawing Actions
- Children Need to Practise and Repeat What They Know
- Going Around, Going up, Going down and Going Through
- Round and Round, Going up, Going down and Going Through
- Chapter 5: Seeing and Knowing
- Linda in Dungarees
- Different Types of Information
- Spilling Milk While Holding Beans on Toast: What Things are, Where Things are, and How and Where They Go
- Views, Sections and Surfaces
- Chapter 6: Space and Time
- Three-Dimensional Constructions: The Relationship to Two-Dimensional Work
- The Ecology of Creativity
- Showing More Complex Events in Space and Time
- Movement and Time: Changes of State and Changes of Position
- Sequences of Events: Visual Narrative
- Children Learn from Other People's Pictures
- Talking to Children about How Pictures Work
- Many Different Pictures from a Few Drawing Rules
- Education and Childcare: What We Can Do to Help
- Chapter 7: The Origin of Literacy: Young Children Learn to Read
- B is Ben
- Starting to Read and Write
- Chapter 8: Children Begin to Show Depth in Their Drawings
- Looking from a Particular Point of View, or a Variety of Points of View
- Drawing a Stagecoach That Moves away from Us
- The Importance of Understanding Children's Thinking
- Helping Children Get on with Their Drawings
- Occlusion and Hidden Line Elimination
- Foreshortened Planes
- Planes, Curves and Spheres
- Visual Jokes: The Relationship between Humour and Intellect
- Implications of Ben's Development
- How Does the Study of Ben Compare with Studies of Average Drawing Development?
- Autistic Child Artists
- Other Gifted Child Artists
- Chapter 9: Why Do Many Children Give up Drawing and Painting? What Can We Do to Help?
- Did My Children See Me Painting?
- Should One Paint or Draw for Children?
- The Importance of Record-Keeping
- Painting: The Unfolding Event
- Different Kinds of Realism
- Drawing as an Interplay of Forces Rather Than the Representation of Objects
Series listing[Page ii]
Mollie Davies: Movement and Dance in Early Childhood
2nd edition 2003
John Matthews: Drawing and Painting: Children and Visual Representation
2nd edition 2003
Marian Whitehead: Developing Language and Literacy with Young Children
2nd edition 2002
Rosemary Roberts: Self-esteem and Early Learning 2nd edition 2002
Cath Arnold: Child Development and Learning 2–5 – Georgia's Story 1999
Pat Gura: Resources for Early Learning 1997
Chris Pascal and Tony Bertram: Effective Early Learning – case studies in improvement 1997
All titles are available from Paul Chapman Publishing http://www/paulchapmanpublishing.co.uk
The 0–8 Series
The 0–8 Series edited by Professor Tina Bruce, deals with essential themes in early childhood which concern practitioners, parents and children. In a practical and accessible way, the series sets out a holistic approach to work with young children, families and their communities. It is evidence based, drawing on theory and research. The books are designed for use by early years practitioners, and those on professional development courses, and initial teacher education courses covering the age-range 0–8.
© John Matthews 2003
First published 2003
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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ISBN 0 7619 4785 X
ISBN 0 7619 4786 8 (pbk)
Typeset by Dorwyn Ltd, Rowlands Castle, Hants
Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge
Note: In this book I have mostly used the pronouns ‘her’, ‘hers’ for children in general, unless I am referring to a particular, male individual. Although (sadly) the vast majority of early childhood educators are women, I have used the pronoun ‘him’ and ‘his’ when referring to the teacher in general. I will also be obliged to use the terms, ‘teaching, teacher, learning, learner’, although I no longer believe in such things. I will be obliged to refer to other imaginary entities like ‘subjects’ and ‘disciplines’. The readers should bear in mind that these are convenient but artificial labels for aspects of processes we do not understand. I will also be forced to make a distinction between something called ‘development’ and something called ‘learning’, although, I believe, no such distinction exists.
This edition is dedicated to Joseph Ng
‘Children draw for fun.’ (Georges Luquet, 1923, p.1)
Series Preface[Page xi]
The 0–8 Series has stood the test of time, maintaining a central place among early childhood texts. Practitioners have appreciated the books because, while very practical, the series presents a holistic approach to work with young children, which values close partnership with families and their communities. It is evidence based, drawing on theory and research in an accessible way.
The 0–8 Series, now being revised and updated, continues to deal with the themes of early childhood which have always been of concern and interest to parents, practitioners and the children themselves. The voice of the child has, since 1989, been under threat in education. Each author has made an important contribution in their field of expertise, using this within a sound background of child development and practical experience with children, families, communities, schools and other early childhood settings. The series consistently gives a central place to the interests and needs of children, emphasising the relationship between child development and the socio-cultural learning with which biological and brain development is inextricably linked. The voice of the child is once again being understood as being important if children are to develop and learn effectively, and if adults helping them to learn (teaching them) are to be effective in their work.
The basic processes of communication, movement, play, self-esteem and understanding of self and others, as well as the symbolic layerings in development (leading to dances, reading, writing, mathematical and musical notations, drawing, model-making) never cease to fascinate those who love and spend time with children. Some of the books in this series focus on these processes of development and learning, by looking at children and their contexts in a general way, giving examples as they go. Other books take a look at particular aspects of individual children and the community. Some emphasise the importance of rich physical and cultural provision and careful [Page xii]consideration of the environment indoors and outdoors and the way that adults work with children.
As Series Editor I am delighted to reintroduce the 0–8 Series to a new readership. The re-launched series enters a more favourable climate than the original series, which survived (and flourished) in a hostile climate of literacy hours for four-year-olds, adult-led learning, and a lack of valuing diversity, multi-lingualism, imagination and creativity. This revised and updated 0–8 Series will inform, support and inspire the next generation of early childhood practitioners in the important work they do, in a climate which will encourage rather than undermine.
I look forward to seeing the impact of the 0–8 Series on the next decade.ProfessorOctober 2001
Dr John Matthews has expanded the popular first edition of his book to share with readers the work he has done in Singapore. He has also made enriching reference to his grandchildren and their artistic and expressive development.
The book resonates with respect for the creativity of children, and gives practical help to those living with and working with babies and young children. His work is powerfully underpinned with evidence from the research literature. He shows great courage in holding steadfastly to an approach to teaching art which draws on evidence available, and which is supported with clusters of theories that do not contradict each other. He also gives the views of those who take a different stance.
His work has earned him an international reputation as a scholar in his field, and yet he has never lost touch with his practical work with children. His enjoyment of working with them in home or early years settings beams out on every page, as he writes with obvious fascination for the way children develop in their visual representations, especially through mark-making.
The book gives a ‘can do’ message to practitioners and those training them. Although he shows us Ben's paintings and drawings, which are exceptional in every aspect, he also shows us how we can help every child in every cultural context to develop the ability to represent in paint, drawings or constructions, and so enrich thoughts, ideas, imagination, feelings and relationships, as well as technical prowess.
The first edition was a much loved text for many practitioners. The second edition, with its cross-cultural and cross-generation perspectives, looks likely to offer those in the field of early childhood training and practice another gem., Series Editor September 2002
The debts to Piaget, Luquet, Chris Athey, Alan Costall, John Willats, Colwyn Trevarthen, Esther Thelen and Linda Smith are obvious. The encouragement of Brent Wilson, Elliot Eisner, Anna Kindler and Dennis Atkinson has been important to me. I also owe a great deal to Dennie Wolf, Rebecca Chan and the late, great, Nancy Smith. My thanks, of course, to Ben, Joel and Hannah Matthews.
I am also grateful for the support of my colleagues in Visual and Performing Arts, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, and to Dr Li Lian Chang and Dr Ken Ung.
I would like to especially acknowledge the help of Linda Matthews. Most of my better days came from her.
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