Development Theory: Deconstructions/Reconstructions


Jan Nederveen Pieterse

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  • Theory, Culture & Society

    Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It also publishes theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.

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    Globalization and Football: A Critical Sociology

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    Scott McQuire


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    In memory of W.F. Wertheim, Gerrit Huizer, Vincent Tucker and Ranjit Dwivedi

    List of Tables and Figures

    • I.1 Précis of book treatment xvii
    • 1.1 Meanings of development over time 7
    • 1.2 Global hegemony and development theories 10
    • 1.3 Actors in development field: different stakeholders, different development 10
    • 1.4 Current trends in development theory 18
    • 5.1 Development theories and culture 76
    • 5.2 Development and culture 76
    • 6.1 Contrasting development models 101
    • 10.1 ICT4D and development policy 176
    • 11.1 Development perspectives and future options 187
    • 11.2 Another outline of the development field 188
    • 12.1 Trends in twenty-first-century globalization 205
    • 1.1 Dimensions of development theories 9
    • 1.2 General trends in development theory over time 13
    • 4.1 Mode of production and culture 56


    Most chapters in this book have appeared earlier as articles in journals and books and they have all been revised for this volume. I acknowledge the kind permission of the following publishers and copyright holders:

    Institute of Social Studies: ‘Dilemmas of development discourse: the crisis of developmentalism and the comparative method’, Development and Change (22, 1, 1991); ‘My paradigm or yours? Alternative development, post development, reflexive development’, Development and Change (29, 2, 1998). A newly added section in Chapter 5 draws on my review article ‘Tough Liberalism: the Human Development Report and cultural liberty’, Development and Change (36, 6, 2005).

    Routledge: ‘The development of development theory: towards critical globalism’, Review of International Political Economy (3, 4, 1996); ‘Trends in development theory’, in Ronen Palan (ed.), Global Political Economy (London, 2000); After post-development’, Third World Quarterly (20, 1, 2000).

    Frank Cass: ‘The cultural turn in development: questions of power’, European Journal of Development Research (7, 1, 1995). ‘Growth and equity revisited: a supply-side approach to social development’, European Journal of Development Research (9, 1, 1997) and in Cristóbal Kay (ed.), Globalisation, Competitiveness and Human Security (London, 1997). ‘Critical holism and the Tao of development’, European Journal of Development Research (11, 1, 1999).

    Zed Books: A short version of ‘Critical holism and the Tao of development’ appears in Ronaldo Munck and Denis O'Hearn (eds), Critical Development Theory: Contributions to a New Paradigm (London, Zed, 1999). ‘Delinking or globalization?’ appeared earlier in Economic and Political Weekly (29, 5, 1994).

    An early version of ‘Digital capitalism and development’ appeared in the Incommunicado Reader, edited by Geert Lovink and Soenke Zehle (Nederveen Pieterse, 2005a). This chapter has benefited from being presented at a Communication and Development workshop in Malmö (, and at the Incommunicado conference on Information for Development in Amsterdam 2005 ( I thank Linda Aitio for research assistance and Sanjay Gupta, Oscar Hemer and Dan Schiller for comments.

    Amsterdam University Press: An early version of Chapter 12 appeared in Doing Good or Doing Better: Development policies in a globalising world, edited by Peter van Lieshout, Monique Kremer and Robert Went and published by Amsterdam University Press for the Dutch Scientific Council for Government Policy (Nederveen Pieterse, 2009b). I thank Robert Went and other editors for their comments.

    I am indebted to many more friends and sources of inspiration than I can acknowledge. Friends and colleagues have commented on different chapters. I cordially thank Thomas Blom Hansen, Lisa Chason, Ranjit Dwivedi, Aurora Galindo, Des Gasper, Ananta Giri, Frank Hirtz, Gerrit Huizer, Sudipto Kaviraj, Cristóbal Kay W.D. Lakshman, Lily Ling, Gilbert Rist, Henk van Roosmalen, Jan Aart Scholte, David Slater, Thanh-dam Truong, Vincent Tucker, Peter Waterman, W.F. Wertheim and Chris Williams. Most chapters were written while I was at the Institute of Social Studies, an international graduate school in development studies in The Hague, and I am grateful to the Institute for many lessons learnt. I have been inspired by several generations of ISS students, particularly in the Politics of Alternative Development Strategies MA programme. To name only a few, my thanks go to Hanan and Wafa Abdel Rahman, Michael Chai, Daniel Chavez, Tony Chiejina, Mike Demel, Fiona Dove, Azza Karam, Sergio Lenci, Wangu Mwangi, Edgar Pieterse, Melania Portilla Rodriguez, Jeff Powell, Imad Sabi, Ali Salman, Kim Scipes, Albana Shala, Nahda Sh'hada Younis, PL. de Silva, Mukta Srivastava, Ignatius Swart, Stuart Todd, Reaz Uddin and Hasmet Uluorta.

    For the second edition, I would like express my appreciation to graduate students at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and all those who commented on its theses, among others, Emin Adas, Chandler Armstrong, Serife Genis, Ravi Ghadge, Jin-Ho Jang, Jae Kim, Jongtae Kim, Amit Prasad, Ben Smith and Daniel Tessema. My perspective has been influenced by research trips to Asia, Africa and Latin America and friends and colleagues to whom I am indebted are too many to mention. I have appreciated probing questions by Tila Kumar and Amiya Das of Delhi University. I thank Chris Rojek at Sage for proposing the second edition. I thank Sharada Srinivasan for commenting on a draft. The usual disclaimer of course applies.

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Since the first edition of this book appeared in 2001 there have been momentous changes in the field of development policy and studies. Some are the deepening of trends that have long been in motion—in particular the rise of Asia and newly industrialized countries—and some have been radical ruptures. Among the latter, two major trend breaks are the weakening of neoliberalism and of American hegemony. Neither has left the stage but they have been on the losing side, face mounting problems and gather no new adherents. Neoliberalism—essentially the style of Anglo-American capitalism turned into doctrine—is crumbling from its own excesses and swerves from crisis to bubble to crisis. The weakening of American hegemony has been on the cards for some time but has been hastened by neoconservative overreach, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Originally the book outlined three main eras of development. First, the preludes to development in the 1800s and the catch-up policies from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century; second, the postwar Keynesian consensus, broadly 1950–1980; and third, the neoliberal era of the Washington consensus, 1980–2000. In the book's first edition, the main thrust was the tension between the Keynesian approach and the Washington consensus—in brief, the state-centred and the market-led approach, rippling and echoing through the development field in many ways. Thus, Chapter 11 (the then closing chapter) argues that the main tension in contemporary development policy and thinking is the rift between the Washington institutions (the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, aligned with the World Trade Organization (WTO)) and the human development approach (represented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other UN agencies, development ministries in developing countries and some agencies of development cooperation).

    Now the twenty-first century brings another phase of globalization and another era of development. It has only just begun. So far we know that neoliberalism is passé and the Washington consensus is no more; we know there are trend breaks and new trends, but it may be too early as yet to discern a new pattern. Among the new trends are the rise of the south, the growth of south-south relations in trade, energy and politics, and the growing role of leading emerging societies (including BRIC or Brazil Russia India China) and sovereign wealth funds from the global south. A further variable is economic instability in the United States, culminating in the economic crisis of 2008 and spreading outwards. The pendulum shifts toward greater state regulation, both in the west (‘we are all Keynesians now’) and as part of the rising influence of developmental states in the south. The BRIC economies are typically economies with large public sectors.

    Of the contours of this era we know, so far, that the major target of criticism of the previous period (and this book's first edition) is becoming a background issue, still pertinent, but now on the backburner. The imbalances in the world economy are so profound and structural that a major rebalancing is on the cards, although it is difficult to identify the specifics of a new development paradigm. Chapter 12, a new chapter, focuses on the emerging trends in the development field.

    Let me briefly indicate the main changes in this revised edition. I have updated and fine-tuned the entire text by streamlining formulations and refining arguments, adding some references. In Chapters 1 and 2, I have updated the closing section. Chapters 3, 5, 8 and 11 have undergone significant changes. I have revised Chapter 3 because its original keynote, critical globalism, is now a common platform and the literature on globalization and development has grown exponentially. I have expanded Chapter 5 on culture and development with a discussion of new literature such as the Human Development Report on Cultural Liberty in Today's Diverse World. In Chapter 8 I have fine-tuned and expanded the argument on social development.

    I have added a new chapter on digital capitalism and development (Chapter 10). This argues that information-for-development (ICT4D) is primarily driven by market expansion and market deepening. As the latest accumulation wave, digital capitalism generates information technology boosterism and cyber utopianism with the digital divide as a refrain. This chapter criticizes the discourses and policies of ‘bridging the digital divide’ and views information-for-development as part of a package deal in which cyber utopianism is associated, not exclusively but primarily, with marketing digital capitalism. The actual task of information-for-development is to disaggregate ICT4D. Less emphasis on the internet and more on telephone, radio and television would normalize and ground the discussion. I conclude by arguing that the ICT4D discussion should move away from development aid, NGOs and externally funded projects, to the central question of disembedding technology from capital.

    Chapter 11 on futures of development has undergone many changes, understandably because it was a forward-looking chapter. A new closing chapter discusses the main challenges of twenty-first-century globalization and development (Chapter 12).

    During the years when the book was written, and since then, several close friends passed away. Wim Wertheim, my teacher at the University of Amsterdam whose work on emancipation has continued to inspire me throughout the years, was a dear friend. Wim Wertheim's teaching on Southeast Asia and Indonesia and his views on emancipation and the importance of the peasant hinterland influenced me greatly and his long friendship meant a lot to me. Wim Wertheim died in 1998. Gerrit Huizer, director of the Third World Centre at Nijmegen University and a close friend and companion, passed away not long after Wim Wertheim. Gerrit's work on peasant movements also followed in the lines of emancipation studies. My dear friend Vincent Tucker died in a car accident near Cork, Ireland. Chapter 9 in this book is inspired by his work on the sociology of health; it was also the Inaugural Vincent Tucker Memorial Lecture at the University College of Cork, February 1998. Ranjit Dwivedi was a close friend at the Institute of Social Studies. We left the Institute around the same time. Shortly after defending his dissertation on the Narmada Valley protest movements, he left to take up a position at the Open University in England and I left for the University of Illinois. Less than a year later Ranjit died. I dedicate the second edition of this book with great affection and warmth to the memory of these dear friends and profound scholars.

    When the first edition of the book came out in 2001 I moved jobs from the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. From 2009 I am to be at the University of California, Santa Barbara, as Mellichamp Professor of Global Studies and Sociology.

    Jan NederveenPieterse, 2009


    This book represents my engagement with development studies over many years. To guide the reader here is a brief overview of the treatment and arguments in the different chapters.

    Chapter 1 is the substantive introduction to the book. It problematizes development knowledge and offers a stock taking of major trends in development thinking. Chapter 1 (Trends) and Chapters 11 (Futures) and 12 (Twenty-first century globalization) tie a ribbon around the book.

    Chapters 27 mainly consist of critical treatments of different approaches to development. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the career of development thinking in the mode of discourse analysis. Chapter 2 focuses on the deep legacies of Eurocentrism in developmentalism. Chapter 3 addresses the zigzag character of development thinking and its inconsistencies over time. Its closing argument on critical globalism is both analytic and programmatic. One of the limitations of discourse analysis (taken up in Chapters 1 and 7) is that it fails to engage the specifics of political economy. Chapter 4 revisits the political economy approach by way of a critique of Samir Amin's work. His thesis in favour of delinking is contrasted to globalization processes, continuing the argument of critical globalism in the previous chapter. Another theme is Amin's political economy approach to ‘culture’. Chapter 5 takes up various ways in which ‘culture’ has been incorporated into development discourse and policy.

    While alternative development is a critique of mainstream development, Chapter 6 subjects alternative development claims to a critical treatment, in particular the claim for an alternative development paradigm. Chapter 7 is a critique of post-development arguments and, I plead guilty here, a deconstruction of deconstruction. Chapters 47 address four critical approaches in development: prioritizing structures (political economy), prioritizing culture (culture and development), prioritizing social forces (alternative development) and prioritizing discourse (post-development).

    A book with just criticisms and goodbyes to paradigms would be too easy and not quite satisfactory, although this has long been the common fare in development studies. Lengthy analyses or critiques often conclude with just a brief note on ways forward and I would like to be more constructive and affirmative. Thus, Chapters 811 consist of programmatic treatments or reconstructions in the sense of affirmative and innovative turns and forward options for development. On balance these treatments argue more ‘for’ than ‘against’. Chapter 8 argues for extending the human development approach to social development and for a supply-side approach to social development, including taking on questions such as social capital. Chapter 9 is a philosophical and methodological reflection; it takes the arguments on Eurocentrism in Chapter 2 further and argues for critical holism as the Tao of development. Chapter 11 on futures of development takes the opening arguments on trends in development thinking and policy into the future tense, redefines development in light of the overall discussion, and concludes with reconstructions in development. A précis of the treatment is above (Table I.1). Chapter 12, new in the second edition, reflects on twenty-first century developments.

    Table I.1 Précis of book treatment
    Development thinkingOverview1
    Discourse analysisDevelopmentalism2
    History of development thinking3
    Political economyDependency theory and delinking4
    Culture and developmentCultural turn, anthropology5
    Alternative developmentSocial forces6
    Post-developmentDiscourse analysis as ideology7
    Human developmentCapacitation8
    ICT and developmentDisembedding technology from capital10
    International development cooperationCompartmentalizing macroeconomics and foreign aid12
    Globalization and developmentCritical globalism, global development3, 11, 12
    Intercultural developmentCultural difference as a catalyst4
    Social developmentSupply-side8
    Critical holismTao of development9
    Reflexive developmentCollective learning, reform platform11
    Development pluralism12

    Any of these approaches—discourse analysis, anthropology, cultural studies, alternative development, political economy, etc.—is a vantage point from which to probe the complexities of development. Any approach handled with depth and subtlety can be fruitful if it becomes an instrument and avenue of reflexivity This is the lesson I arrive at in the closing two chapters. Development is too complex to allow partial approaches to have their way—although these lend themselves to technical finesse and managerial intervention, the managerial fiction of knowledge and mastery itself is part of the problem. Combining different angles and approaches yields an holistic assessment of development. Fallibility and open-endedness are necessary features of development thinking and what matters in relation to any of these approaches is reflexivity; what matters is not merely what but also how. This also applies to holism itself: hence critical holism, lest holism become an all-purpose way out of the perplexities of development. These critical treatments are not dogmatic closures but contributions to reflexivity. And it applies to reflexivity lest it become snake oil: reflexivity must be politically enabling and serve an emancipatory interest.

    From the combination of terms in the title – deconstructions/reconstructions – it is obvious that this is not an exercise in deconstruction in the classic sense (cf. Willett 1999: 2–3) for then reconstructions would not belong. Reconstructions are ways ahead, forward options, contextual and time bound. In time they will yield other deconstructions and then other reconstructions will emerge, which is the way of things. Chapter 1 argues that development is a struggle. To be precise, development is a struggle over the shape of futures, a dramatic and complex struggle.

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