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This book provides the first resource dedicated to critically examining gender and sex in study designs, methods, and analysis in health research. In order to produce ethical, accurate, and effective research findings it is vital to integrate both sex (biological characteristics) and gender (socially constructed factors) into any health study. This book draws attention to some of the methodological complexities in this enterprise and offers ways to thoughtfully address these by drawing on empirical examples across a range of topics and disciplines.

Developing a Gender Role Socialization Scale
Developing a gender role socialization scale
BrendaToner, TarynTang, AlishaAli, DonnaAkman, NoreenStuckless, Mary JaneEsplen, CherylRolin-Gilman, LoriRoss

We have developed a Gender Role Socialization Scale (GRSS) for women to address the internalization of prescribed gender role messages for women that may affect well-being. Female gender role socialization may be conceptualized as an enduring social construct in which women's lives can be contextualized (Lips, 1993; Worell & Remer, 1992). Currently, there are a number of mental health concerns that are more prevalent in women than in men, including depression, eating disorders, somatoform disorders, and most phobias (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Therefore, it is imperative that research be undertaken to examine the various factors that may account for these differences between women and men. We ...

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