Democratizing Development: Struggles for Rights and Social Justice in India
Publication Year: 2018
Since its inception, the Indian model of development has the twin objectives of economic development and social justice woven together. This has shaped both policy and popular aspiration in post-Independence India. In this context, Democratizing Development: Struggles for Rights and Social Justice in India explores and analyses how development gets vitiated by multiple powers and subverts the democratic ideals of participation, equality, inclusion, redistribution and equity, and how the poor and socially marginalized struggle to make development democratic. Examining development through the lens of the most marginalized, the book shows the democratic potential of development as well as the result of its absence.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Democratizing Development-Issues and Actors
- Chapter 2: Contesting Development, Reimagining Democracy: Grassroots Social Movements
- Chapter 3: National Rural Employment Guarantee Act: Access and Inclusion in Development
- Chapter 4: Participatory Governance: The Paradoxes of Development and Democracy
- Chapter 5: Joint Forest Management: The Making and Unmaking of Participation
- Chapter 6: The Kol Resistance: Tribal Mobilization for Land Rights
- Chapter 7: Collective Economies of the Poor: The Ethics of Equity
- Chapter 8: Conclusions: Development as Democracy
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Copyright © Ranjita Mohanty, 2018
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Mohanty, Ranjita, author.
Title: Democratizing development: struggles for rights and social justice in India/Ranjita Mohanty.
Description: New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications India, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018027429| ISBN 9789352807277 (hardcover: alk. paper) | ISBN 9789352807284 (epub 2.0) | ISBN 9789352807291 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Economic development—Political aspects—India. | Democracy—Economic aspects—India. | Political participation—India. | Social justice—India. | Human rights—India.
Classification: LCC HC435.M675 2018 | DDC 338.954—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018027429
ISBN: 978-93-528-0727-7 (HB)
SAGE Team: Rajesh Dey, Guneet Kaur Gulati, Kumar Indra Mishra and Rajinder Kaur.
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10/12.5 pt ITC Stone Serif by Zaza Eunice, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India.
SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish over 900 journals, including those of more than 400 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara's lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.
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Rabindra Nath Mohanty
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The normative idea of progress on which development is fashioned gets vitiated by the power and politics associated with development. The control and distribution of resources, competition among social powers, state intervention and global forces create enclaves of inequality and exclusion. How the poor and socially marginalized, through their struggle for rights and social justice, create conditions for participation, redistribution, equity, equality and inclusion is what this book offers.
The book is positioned in the historical framework of development that India adopted soon after independence from colonial rule. The successive shifts, notwithstanding the framework, have retained, until recently, the core principles of economic development with social justice and the state as the guarantor of development. Even when neoliberal growth projects are pursued ruthlessly, the welfare and social protection projects are not abandoned. The framework has created aspiration, shaped imagination and influenced people's struggles for the democratization of development, even though it has exploited and excluded them. This book shows, when people engage in social struggles to democratize development, they also expand the framework by accepting the desirable and rejecting the undesirable, as well as by providing alternative visions and practices.[Page x]
The book is set in the Indian villages and contains my research conducted over the last 20 years. Some of my works included in the book were published earlier. I have reworked on them to bring under the theme of the book.
While writing this book, I was struck not only by the complexity of development as it manifests in the Indian villages but also by the complex machinery that works or does not work to deliver development. That the poor, uneducated, socially oppressed and powerless question development shows not only their courage, determination and endurance, but it also shows how the encounter with development has made such struggles an essential part of their living.2 January 2018
It is difficult to acknowledge the diverse ways in which so many people over so many years have contributed to make this book possible. I can never thank them enough. I take this occasion to let them know that they have been part of the making of the book.
I had started putting together ideas for this book during my Fulbright year, 2006-07, I spent at the Anthropology Department, University of North Carolina, USA. I am most thankful to Arturo Escobar for clarity, critical ideas and much needed inspiration. The book wouldn't have been possible without him.
Chapters 3 and 4 are based on studies conducted as part of a multi-country research project—the Development Research Centre on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. I am very thankful to Rajesh Tandon, John Gaventa, Andrea Cornwall, Vera Coelho, Lisa Thompson, Steven Robins, Joanna Wheeler, Mandakini Pant, Bettina von Lieres and others who commented on drafts and with whom I had an opportunity to discuss in workshops. The studies would not have been complete without two people, Ganga Joshi and Tapas Satpathy. They were my constant companions in the field and [Page xii]from whose work in the villages of Uttarakhand and Gujarat I gathered some of the key learnings in social mobilization. Thanks for being with me in work and in leisure.
For Chapter 5, I am most thankful to Gaya Prasad Gopal and Bhagwat Prasad of Akhil Bharatiya Samaj Seva Sansthan, Chitrakoot. I visited the area in 2008. They not only took me to the villages where I had a chance to know about the land rights struggle of the Kol Tribe but also were most helpful in providing many details during subsequent discussions in person and on phone.
The interactions held during fieldwork and conducting workshops, besides many informal conversations, generated ideas that have gone into the book. Space is a limiting factor in naming people individually. Herein I extend thanks to all.
Outside the boundary of work, family and friends have encouraged, indulged, arranged lunches and coffees, skyped from long distances. All of you must know that you have been invaluable.
Last but not the least, my thanks to the editors at SAGE for taking this work forward from the manuscript to a printed volume.
About the Author