`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula



All that is human must retrograde if it do not advance.

—Edward Gibbon, 1788/1932, p. 862

Although the trajectory of human experience understandably evokes praise when advancing, in some instances, the more adaptive course of development may prove to be other than simply forward strivings. Various experiences may occur in life when regressive tendencies can potentially serve growth-inducing purposes. Such universal phenomena as sleep, play, humor, dreams, and artistic creations entail essential qualities of childlike states, yet each offers activity that may be in the service of an individual (Kris, 1952; Schafer, 1958). More often, however, regression proper is linked to developmental reversions that clearly represent movement in less than constructive and purposeful directions. Situations involving trauma or stress, such as the divorce of a parent, ...

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