`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula



And oftentimes excusing of a fault

Doth make the fault the worse by the excuse.

—William Shakespeare, 1623/1990, King John, act IX scene ii, lines 30–311

Making excuses for shortcomings and providing justification for one's particular faults are common human tendencies. People frequently attempt to protect their self-images by offering socially acceptable reasons for what may be considered objectionable or inappropriate actions. A guest, for example, on arriving late at a relative's celebration of the purchase of a new home, immediately begins to detail the extent of heavy traffic en route or the difficulty in locating the house. Attempting to save face under such circumstances is understandable, even when it is obvious to others that the person's explanations are false and unnecessary. In such instances, although individuals ...

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