`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula



Such as everyone is inwardly, so he judgeth outwardly.

—Thomas à Kempis, 1441/1864, p. 88

The capacity of an individual to accurately appraise the experiences of other people is an essential component of empathy and sound human relationships. The attribution of certain qualities to others as a result of one's own subjective functioning contributes to identifying and understanding mutual perspectives. At the same time, however, an individual's perceptions may be distorted to such an extent that judgments about others may lack accuracy. When using the defense mechanism of projection, a person's assumptions about the motivations of other people may proceed more from avoiding threat than attempting to communicate objectively. Conflicted behavior is essentially disowned and attributed to others, who are then viewed as responsible for creating ...

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