`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula
We know the truth not only through our reason but also through our heart.
—Blaise Pascal, 1662/1966, p. 58
It is not unusual for individuals to blunt the impact of painful events by muting their emotional reactions for a time. People are also able to talk about the occurrence of hardships and traumas in subdued tones that belie the sorrow or even terror of their experiences. In many instances, this ability to separate reason from emotion may be adaptive by enabling individuals to survive conditions and not be overwhelmed by their ruling passions. At the same time, it is also possible for persons to come to rely on a pattern of avoiding affective responses to painful encounters that are inevitable in life. Emotions represent essential aspects ...