`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula



Nature never deceives us; we deceive ourselves.

—Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1764/1911, p. 166

Counselors must continually be alert to challenges presented by clients' use of denial and related mechanisms of defense. Individuals employ denial by distorting perceptions in response to threat, and numerous examples of the defense in counseling may be cited. In one instance, a client insists that she is not using drugs when the counselor is aware of the person's continuing chemical abuse. Another client denies the urgency of making up incomplete assignments, while reporting that his academic performance is improving. Yet another person is noncompliant with her medication for a life-threatening condition and states, “I'm doing much better, and I really don't need the treatment anymore.” The counselor may be placed in the ...

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