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`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula

Defense Mechanisms in the Counseling Process in Groups
Defense mechanisms in the counseling process in groups

I want by understanding myself, to understand others. I want to be all that I am capable of becoming.

—(Catherine Mansfield, 1927, p. 254

Defense mechanisms that impair an individual's ability to relate effectively on an interpersonal level frequently become apparent in social exchanges in the group experience. A person's characteristic defense pattern often emerges in the sometimes threatening social context of a therapeutic group (Rutan & Stone, 1993). In a supportive and challenging group environment, the group leader and group members may provide constructive feedback to participants employing maladaptive defenses. Purposeful therapeutic interactions enable individuals in groups to clarify their conflicted behavior and regulate defense use (Clark, 1992, 1997).

Although groups ...

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