`[The client material]... stimulated thought and reflection... Clark presented a large number of very tricky case studies and illustrated all manner of different and interesting ways of responding to clients who find it difficult to engage with the process of counselling. Furthermore, this is done in the framework of a model of counselling which integrates humanistic, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural theories in a most interesting and convincing way. In the end, I learned quite a lot and found myself pondering the case histories days later' - Counselling, The Journal of the British Association for Counselling The understanding of defence mechanisms is vital to counsellors and psychotherapists, particula



The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none.

—Thomas Carlyle, 1841/1993, p. 41

Perhaps one of the clearest examples of defense mechanisms in counseling occurs with persons who deny or rationalize their chemical dependency despite obvious and urgent conflicts. In counseling, a client may state, “I don't have any problems controlling my drinking” but is in treatment for multiple infractions for driving while intoxicated. Another individual who states that he has been free of substances during the week appears to be high from smoking marijuana on meeting with a counselor. Yet another client, recognizing that she has problems with controlling her use of alcohol, employs rationalization as a defense to justify her habit: “Hey, anybody with all my troubles needs a ...

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