Publication Year: 1995
Subject: Clinical Psychology (general)
`Fast becoming a contemporary classic... this book tries both to be critical and engender critical thinking in a number of ways. It offers an overview of a number of theories that address human distress as well as particular forms of "pathology". This book effectively highlights the way that western society has taken "normal"; and "abnormal" emotional states to be factual entities rather than the constructed understandings of human phenomena that they are.... should be on the reading list of every course//module that attends to human distress' - Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis This practical and accessible critique of the institutions, practices and presuppositions that underlie the st
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
© Ian Parker, Eugenie Georgaca, David Harper, Terence McLaughlin and Mark Stowell-Smith 1995
First published 1995
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 8039 7480 9
ISBN 0 8039 7481 7 (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog card number 95–071356
Typeset by Photoprint, Torquay, Devon
Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Cambridge
This co-authored book is not designed to operate as a textbook, but as a polemical and accessible ‘counter-text’ for students and practitioners. It develops a deconstructive approach to the practice of professionals and researchers concerned with ‘psychopathulogy’. We will be doing three things in the course of the book. First, we will open up the notion of ‘psychopathology’ as it is conventionally used in psychology and psychiatry using a practical deconstructive approach to the language and institutions that hold it in place. Secondly, we will explore the implications or deconstructive ideas for the theories and practices that underpin clinical treatments. Thirdly, we will be describing alternative views of the language of psychopathology and models for critical professional work and good mental health practice.
Let us trace the shape of the book. We are concerned in the first part of the book with how forms of mental ‘illness’ or distress have become divided from mental health, and how professionals participate in ‘dividing practices’ in the present day. As we describe how these dividing practices work, we throw them into question by deconstructing clinical categories. Deconstruction in this book is used to unravel suppressed meanings in texts, and to provide a way of re-reading and re-working ideas and practices that are normally taken for granted. In Chapter 1 we review the way in which abnormal psychology has been divided from the ‘normal’ psychology that most people are supposed to enjoy. Chapter 2 looks at ‘alternatives’ from psychoanalysis, anti-psychiatry, family therapy and cognitive approaches. In Chapter 3 we look at how symptoms are constructed, and how they reinforce popular stereotypes and different forms of oppression.
We then turn our attention to the ways in which cultural images of psychological distress, which are so important a context for the development of psychiatry and clinical psychology, bear on the ways in which people who are categorized in the mental health system understand themselves. Chapter 4 explores cultural representations of psychopathology, and how those representations affect clinical practice. We look at the other side of the problem in Chapter 5, when we discuss pathological identity, and we trace the network of paths that lead people into the mental health system. This is all well and good. but we also want to ask what opportunities for change this picture presents to the professional reader [Page viii]who will want to know what theoretical and research alternatives our deconstruction opens up, and to the user of mental health services, who will be concerned with examples of better practice. In Chapter 6 we develop our account of ‘psychopathology’ as something that is embedded in cultural texts, and we look at research on language, and the ways in which traditional psychiatric work, which produces a circular argument confirming existing labels, can be challenged. The different practical challenges that have been developed are explored in Chapter 7, which covers the development of the alternative mental health movements.
Psychiatric texts, like many other texts, try to cover over the contradictions in the argument they develop and the assumptions they use. This book too is interlaced with contradictions, and so it is helpful, we think, to anticipate some of the objections that will be levelled against us, and some of the disagreements between us that will have found their way into the book. This book is not a closed system nor a complete solution, and so Chapter 8 reviews some of the dilemmas and contradictions that face those critical of mainstream psychiatry and clinical psychology, as well as providing a resource list of groups that are taking our academic discussion forward in the real world.
As we go through the book we show why it is necessary to ‘deconstruct’ psychopathology, and describe what we mean by ‘practical deconstruction’. We have come together to write this book from diverse parts of the mental health system – from clinical psychology, psychiatric social work, psychoanalysis, psychology teaching and action research – and have no desire to replace the old jargon around mental health and distress with a new one. As we unravel, deconstruct traditional notions in the following chapters, we suggest strategies for change, and hope that you will be inspired to participate in building, reconstructing something better.
References[Page 146]1977) ‘The politics of clinical judgment: early empirical returns’, Psychological Bulletin, 84: 460–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.84.3.460and (1987) Justice Unbalanced: Gender, Psychiatry and Judicial Decisions. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1985) ‘Positive symptoms and the organisation within and between ideas in schizophrenic speech’, Psychological Medicine, 15(1): 71–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700020948and (1995) ‘The social construction of depression’. Paper presented at ‘Understanding the Social World’ conference, Huddersfield, July.(1990) ‘Discourse analysis of schizophrenic speech: a critique and proposal’, Applied Psycholinguistics, 11: 167–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400008754and (American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,3rd rev. edn.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV™),4th edn.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.1987) ‘The reflecting team’, Family Process, 26: 415–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.1987.26.issue-4(1979) ‘Thought, language and communication disorders: I. Clinical assessment, definition of terms and evaluation of their reliability’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 36: 1315–1321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1979.01780120045006(1985) ‘Mapping abnormalities in language and cognition’, in M.Alpert (ed.), Controversies in Schizophrenia: Changes and Constancies. New York: Guildford Press, pp. 199–226., and (1993) ‘Bryan Appleyard on paranoia’, The Independent Magazine, 15 May, 16–17.(1962) How To Do Things With Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1966) ‘Punishment’, in W.K.Honig (ed.), Operant Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.and (1985) The Politics of Mental Health. London: Macmillan., , , and (1992) Closing the Asylum: The Mental Patient in Modern Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1992) ‘Cries and whispers: what is a paranoia movie?, asks Adam Barker, looking at work from Coppola to “IFK”’, Sight and Sound, 1: 24–25.(1973) Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness. Harmondsworth: Penguin.and (1986) Shrink Rap: Punch on the Analyst's Couch. London: Grafton.(1989) ‘The neuropsychology of schizophrenic speech’, Journal of Communication Disorders, 22: 327–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9924%2889%2990009-9, , , and (1988) ‘Clinical writing and the documentary construction of schizophrenia’, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 12: 265–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00051971(1991) ‘Psychiatric practice and the definition of schizophrenia’, Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 4: 5–11.(1981 ) ‘Theory of the text’, in R.Young (ed.), Untying the Text. London: Routledge. pp. 31–47.([Page 147]1987) Psychiatry Inside Out: Selected Writings of Franco Basaglia. New York: Columbia University Press.(1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine.(1976) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.(Bentall, R.P. (ed.) (1990) Reconstructing Schizophrenia. London: Routledge.1992a) ‘Reconstructing psychopathology’, The Psychologist: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, February, 61–65.(1992b) ‘A proposal to classify happiness as a psychiatric disorder’, Journal of Medical Ethics, 18: 94–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jme.18.2.94(1988) ‘Abandoning the concept of schizophrenia: some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena’, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27: 303–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.1988.27.issue-4, and (1988) ‘Historical background to abnormal psychology’, in E.Miller and P.J.Cooper (eds), Adult Abnormal Psychology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.(1986) Freud and Man's Soul. London: Flamingo.(1991) Ideology and Opinions: Studies in Rhetorical Psychology. London: Sage.(1992) Innovations in the Psychological Management of Schizophrenia. Chichester: Wiley.and (Black Health Workers and Patients Group (1983) ‘Psychiatry and the corporate state’, Race and Class, 25 (2): 49–64.1988) ‘On moral judgements and personality disorders: the myth of psychopathic disorder revisited’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 153: 505–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.153.4.505(1990) ‘Treatment of the psychopathic offender, clinical approaches to working with mentally disordered and sexual offenders’, in K.Howells and R.Hollins (eds), Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology. Leicester: British Psychological Society.(1950 ) Dementia Praecox: or the Group of Schizophrenias. trans. J.Zinkin. New York: International Universities Press.(1995) The Falling Shadow. London: HMSO., and (1984) Distinction: a Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, trans. R.Nice. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1981) ‘What happens to patients released from Special Hospitals?’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 138: 340–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.138.4.340(1988) ‘Review essay on Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 27: 185–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.1988.27.issue-2(Boyers, R. and Orrill, R. (eds) (1971) R. D. Laing and Anti-Psychiatry. Harmondsworth: Penguin.1990) Schizophrenia: a Scientific Delusion?London: Routledge.(1994) ‘Schizophrenia and the art of the soluble’, The Psychologist, 7 (9): 399–404.(1990) Foucault and Derrida: the Other Side of Reason. London: Unwin Hyman.(1991) Toxic Psychiatry. London: Harper Collins.(1993) ‘Social class and psychotherapy revisited’. Paper presented at British Psychological Society Annual Conference, Brighton, March.(1978) Social Origins of Depression. London: Tavistock.and (1980) ‘Frantz Fanon: the revolutionary psychiatrist’, Race and Class, 21 (3): 251–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030639688002100303(1991) Social Selves: Theories of the Social Formation of Personality. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212769(1995) ‘Identification, subjectivity and power in Feminist psychotherapy’, in J.Siegfried (ed.), Therapeutic and Everyday Discourse as Behavior Change: Towards a Micro-Analysis in Therapeutic Process Research. New York: Ablex, pp. 469–489.(Burns, J. and Newnes, C. (eds) (1994) Homosexuality, Psychotherapy and Society, Special Issue, Changes: an International Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 12 (4).[Page 148]1990) Gender Trouble. London: Routledge.(1979) Dr Calman's Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. London: W. H. Allen.(1986) On the Record: Surveillance, Computers and Privacy – the Inside Story. London: Michael Joseph.and (1985) On Learning from the Patient. London: Routledge.(1979) The Psychiatric Society. New York: Columbia Free Press., and (1993) ‘From strategizing to non-intervention: toward irreverence in systemic practice’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 19: 125–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1993.tb00972.x, and (1994) ‘The omnipotence of voices: a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 164: 190–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.164.2.190and (1974) ‘A linguist looks at schizophrenic language’, Brain and Language, 1: 257–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X%2874%2990040-6(1990) Understanding Psychotic Speech: Beyond Freud and Chomsky. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.(1988) On Our Own: Patient Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System, London: MIND.(1988) Feminist Counselling in Action. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219010(1973) Women and Madness. London: Allen Lane.(1975) ‘Sorties’, in E.Marks and I.de Courtivon (eds), New French Feminisms. Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester.(1976) Psychiatry in Dissent: Controversial Issues in Thought and Practice, London: Tavistock.(1964) The Mask of Sanity. St Louis, MO: Mosby.(1994) ‘I'm back! In support of resisting treatment’, Asylum, 8 (2): 26–28.and (1995) ‘A collectivist model of self help’, Asylum.and (1977) R. D. Laing: the Philosophy and Politics of Psychotherapy. Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester.(1991) ‘The treatability of psychopaths’, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 2 (1): 103–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585189108408622(1979) ‘Le recit du psychotique’., in M.Ribettes (ed.), Verite et vraisemblance du texte psychotique. Paris: Seuil. pp. 36–76.(1972) The Death of the Family. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1990) ‘Ethnic differences in admission to a Regional Secure Unit’, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 1 (3): 365–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585189008408485and (1983) ‘The oral and written productions of schizophrenic patients’, Progress in Experimental Personality Research, 12: 101–152.(1994) Textuality and Tectonics: Troubling Social and Psychological Science. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1984) ‘Text and Context: Derrida and Foucault on Descartes’, in J.Fekete (ed.), The Structural Allegory: Reconstructive Encounters with the New French Thought. Manchester: Manchester University Press.(1990) ‘Generative metaphor and the history of psychological discourse’, in D.E.Leary (ed.), Metaphors in the History of Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.(1990) ‘Positioning: the discursive production of selves’, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 20: 43–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtsb.1990.20.issue-1and (1980) ‘Language and schizophrenia: towards a synthesis’, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 211: 81–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X%2880%2990067-X, and (1985) Keys to Solution in Brief Therapy. London: Norton.(1977) Anti-Oedipus. New York: Athlone Press.and (1988), Sentenced to Hospital: Offenders in Broadmoor. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and ([Page 149]Department of Health and Social Security (1977) The Role of Psychologists in the Health Service (The Trethowan Report). London: HMSO.1973) Speech and Phenomena, and Other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.(1976) Of Grammatology. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1978) Writing and Difference. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1993) Psychopathic and Anti-Social Personality Disorders: Treatment and Research Issues. London: Gaskell.and (1990), ‘“I gotta use words when I talk to you”: deconstructing the theory of communication’, in R.Parker and J.Shotter (eds), Deconstructing Social Psychology. London: Routledge. pp. 76–90.(1977) Political Language: Words that Succeed and Policies that Fail. London: Academic Press.(1992) Discursive Psychology. London: Sage.and (1989) Literate Means to Therapeutic Ends. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.and (1979) Hypnotherapy: an Exploratory Casebook. New York: Irvington.and (Ernst, S. and Maguire, M. (eds) (1987) Living with the Sphinx: Papers from the Women's Therapy Centre. London: Women's Press.1978) ‘Pyschopathy, personality and genetics’, in R.D.Hare and D.Schalling (eds), Psychopathic Behaviour: Approaches to Research. Chichester: John Wiley.and (1964) The Causes and Cures of Neurosis. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.and (1990) ‘Her Majesties Prison, Grendon Underwood’, in R.Bluglass and P.Bowden (eds), Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. London: Churchill Livingstone.(1993) ‘Psychiatry and racism’, Changes: an International Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 10: 46–58.(1980) Language and the Origins of Psychoanalysis. London: Macmillan.(1990) ‘The history of forensic psychiatry in England’, in R.Bluglass and P.Bowden (eds), Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. London: Churchill Livingstone.and (1971) Madness and Civilization. London: Tavistock Press.(1977) Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane.(1978) ‘About the concept of the “Dangerous Individual” in 19th-century legal psychiatry’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 1: 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2527%2878%2990020-1(1980) Power/knowledge. Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. Brighton: Harvester Press.(1981) The History of Sexuality, vol. 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1994) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis: Theory and Practice. Chichester: Wiley., and (1986) ‘The diagnosis of schizophrenia by language analysis’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 148: 275–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.148.3.275, , and (1979 ) Psycho-analytic notes on an autobiographical account of a case of paranoia (dementia paranoides). in A.Richards (ed.), Freud Pelican Library, vol. 9, Case Histories II. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1984 ) ‘The Unconscious’, in A.Richards, Freud Pelican Library, vol. 11, On Metapsychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1973 ) ‘New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis’, in A.Richards, Freud Pelican Library, vol. 2, New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin.([Page 150]1988) ‘Towards a neuropsychology of schizophrenia’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 153: 437–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.153.4.437and (1991) Identity Crisis: Modernity, Psychoanalysis and the Self. London: Macmillan.(1992) ‘From DSM-I to III-R; voices of self, mastery and the other: A cultural constructivist reading of US psychiatric classification’, Social Science and Medicine, 35: 3–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990115-7(1993) The Panoptic Sort: a Political Economy of Personal Information. Oxford: Westview Press.(1995) ‘Subjectivity and “psychotic” discourses: a preliminary study’, in M.Sullivan (ed.), Psychoanalytic Seminars, 1991–1994. London: THERIP.and (1984) Opening Pandora's Box: a Sociological Study of Scientists' Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (1991) ‘Out of Our Minds: the deconstruction and reconstruction of madness’. PhD dissertation, University of Reading.(1967) ‘Press of freedom’, Village Voice, 14 September.(1992) Common Mental Disorders: a Bio-Social Model. London: Tavistock/Routledge.and (1993) ‘Power and hierarchy: let's talk about it’, Family Process, 32: 157–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.1993.32.issue-2(1990) ‘Histoire de la folie: an unknown book by Michel Foucault’, History of the Human Sciences, 3 (1): 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519000300102(1986) Institutions Observed: Towards a New Concept of Secure Provision in Mental Health. London: King Edward's Hospital Fund for London.(1979) Content Analysis of Verbal Behaviour. New York: Medical and Scientific Books.and (Graumann, C.F. and Moscovici, S. (eds) (1987) Changing Conceptions of Conspiracy. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4618-31993) ‘Na daoine gan aird: Irish people and mental health services’, Changes: an International Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11: 127–137.(1990) Jacques Lacan: a feminist introduction. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203330029(1987) ‘Detention of “psychopathic disorder” patients in Special Hospitals: critical issues’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 151: 474–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.151.4.474(1984) Molecular Revolution: Psychiatry and Politics. Harmondsworth: Peregrine.(1989) ‘Constructing a psychiatric case’, in B.Torode (ed.) Text and Talk as Social Practice. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris Publications.(1963) Strategies of Psychotherapy. New York: Grune and Stratton.(1994) ‘Some constructionist observations on “anxiety” and its history’, in T.R.Sarbin and J.I.Kitsuse (eds), Constructing the Social. London: Sage.(1990) ‘Special hospitals and the state hospital’, in R.Bluglass and P.Bowden (eds) Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. London: Churchill Livingstone.(1987) ‘Psychology and social context’, Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 40: 161–167.(1980) ‘A research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations’. Personality and Individual Differences, 1: 111–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2880%2990028-8(1993) ‘Discourses of conspiracy, suspicion and mistrust: “Paranoia” and its cultural significance’. Unpublished manuscript.(1994a) ‘Histories of suspicion in a time of conspiracy: a reflection on Aubrey Lewis' history of paranoia’, History of the Human Sciences, 7: 89–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519400700304(1994b) ‘The professional construction of “paranoia” and the discursive use of diagnostic criteria’, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 67: 131–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/papt.1994.67.issue-2(‘Deconstructing “paranoia”: towards a discursive understanding of apparently unwarranted suspicion’, Theory and Psychology.(in press)1983) Personal Being. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.([Page 151]1995) ‘Psychology and Marxist politics in America’, in J.Parker and R.Spears (eds), Psychology and Marxism: Coexistence and Contradiction. London: Pluto Press.(1985) Disordered Thinking and Schizophrenic Psychopathology. New York: Gardner Press.and (1987) ‘Positive thought disorder in schizophrenia: its importance, its longitudinal course and impaired perspective as a contributing factor’, in P.D.Harvey and E.F.Walker (eds), Positive and Negative Symptoms in Psychosis: Description, Research and Future Drections. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 155–196., and (1989) ‘Impaired perspective and thought pathology in schizophrenic and psychotic disorders’, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15: 605–623., and (1958) Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. New York: International Universities Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13180-000(1983) ‘Speech competence in manic and schizophrenic psychoses: the association between clinically rated thought disorder and cohesion and reference performance’, journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92: 368–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.92.3.368(1983) ‘The specificity of thought disorder to schizophrenia: research methods in their historical perspective’, Progress in Experimental Personality Research, 12: 153–180.and (1994) ‘Qualitative analysis and eating disorders: discourse analytic research on anorexia nervosa’, International journal of Eating Disorders, 15: 179–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(ISSN)1098-108X(1990) ‘The “discovery” of anorexia nervosa: discourses of the late 19th century’, Text, 10: 321–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/text.1.19188.8.131.521and (1983) The Politics of Schizophrenia: Psychiatric Oppression in the United States. London: University Press of America.(HMSO (1983) The Mental Health Act, 1983. London: HMSO.1986) Forms of Feeling: the Heart of Psychotherapy. London: Tavistock.(1986) ‘Tree structures, the work of listening and schizophrenic discourse: a reply to Beveridge and Brown’, Brain and Language, 27: 385–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X%2886%2990027-1(1982) ‘Apprehending schizophrenic discourse: a structural analysis of the listener's task’, Brain and Language, 15(2): 207–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X%2882%2990057-8, , and (1992) ‘From social abuse to social action: a neighbourhood psychotherapy and social action project for women’, Changes: an International journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 10 (2): 146–153.(1984) ‘Depressed women: outposts of empire and castles of skin’, in B.Richards (ed), Capitalism and Infancy: Essays on Psychoanalysis and PoliticsLondon: Free Association Books.and (1958) Social Class and Mental Illness. New York: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10645-000and (1995) ‘Newman's practice of method completes Vygotsksy’, in I.Parker and R.Spears (eds), Psychology and Marxism: Coexistence and Contradiction. London: Pluto Press.(1986) ‘Linguistic analysis of speech disorder in psychosis’, Clinical Psychology Review, 6(2): 155–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2886%2990010-3and (1994) ‘Modernity, post-modernity and social work’, British journal of Social Work, 24: 513–532.(1976) Limits to Medicine: The Expropriation of Health. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1985) Parler n'est jamais neutre. Paris: Minuit.(1976) The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.(1992) ‘Family therapy without the family: a framework for systemic practice’, Journal of Family Therapy, 14: 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j..1992.00439.xand ([Page 152]1993) Schizophrenia: a Disease or Some Ways of Being Human. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press., , and (1989) Users and Abusers of Psychiatry. London: Routledge.(1979) Assessing Schizophrenic Thinking: a Clinical and Research Instrument for Measuring Thought Disorder. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.and (1993) Asylums and After: a Revised History of the Mental Health Services. from the Early 18th Century to the 1990s. London: Athlone Press.(1984) ‘Regional Secure Units: the emerging picture’, in G.Edwards (ed.), Current Issues in Clinical Psychology, vol. 4. London: Plenum. pp. 111–119.and (1982) ‘Demography of paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder): a review and comparison with schizophrenia and affective illness’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39: 890–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290080012003(1972) Transcultural Psychiatry. New York: Free Press.(1992) The Selling of DSM: The Rhetoric of Science in Psychiatry. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.and (1985) ‘A Q-methodological study of lesbian identities’, European Journal of Social Psychology, 15: 167–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(ISSN)1099-0992and (1978) ‘Remembering of verbal materials by schizophrenic young adults’, in S.Schwartz (ed.), Language and Cognition in Schizophrenia, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 55–99.(1919) Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia, trans. R.M.Barclay. Edinburgh: Livingstone.(1971) Malleus Maleficarum. London: Arrow Books.and (1969) Σημɛιωτιϰη: Récherches pour une sémanalyse. Paris: Seuil.(Kvale, S. (ed.) (1992) Psychology and Postmodernism. London: Sage.1977) Therapeutic Discourse: Psychotherapy as Conversation. New York: Academic Press.and (1977) Écrits: a Selection, trans. A.Sheridan. London: Tavistock.(1965) The Divided Self: an Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1986) ‘Sanity, madness and the psychiatric profession: an interview’, Asylum, 1: 13–21.(1964) Sanity, Madness and the Family: Families of Schizophrenics. London: Tavistock.and (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and (1992) ‘Schizophrenia: from the inside out’, Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 1: 18–24.(1992) ‘Rethinking psychopathy’, Theory and Psychology, 2 (1): 51–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354392021003(1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1970) ‘Paranoia and paranoid: a historical perspective’, Psychological Medicine, 1: 2–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700039969(1979) The Later Papers of Sir Aubrey Lewis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1963) The Family and Human Adaptation. New York: Harper and Row.(1989) Aliens and Alienists: Ethnic Minorities and Psychiatry,and (2nd edn.London: Unwin Hyman.1994) Psychologists on television. The Psychologist, 7, 207–211.and (1987) The Limits of Interpretation: What's Wrong with Psychoanalysis?Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1983) Attention and behaviourism – fact and fiction. British Journal of Psychology. 74, 301–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01864.x(1992), ‘Postmodernism and subjectivity’, in S.Kvale (ed.) Psychology and Postmodernism. London: Sage.([Page 153]1994) ‘Understanding professional thought disorder: a guide for service users and a challenge for professionals’, Asylum, 8 (2): 29–30.(1981) Mystical Bedlam; Madness and Healing in Seventeenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1982) The Psychopath and Milieu Therapy: a Longitudinal Study. New York: Academic Press.(1991) ‘The schizophrenia concept in first episode psychosis: does it fit and is it harmful? Aspects of psychoeducational work in the first episode’, Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 4: 40–44.(1991) ‘Ordering thoughts on thought disorder’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 158: 307–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.158.3.307(1988) ‘0 Methodology’, QASS Vol. 66. London: Sage.and (1987) ‘The new epistemology and the Milan approach: feminist and socio-political considerations’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 13: 139–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1987.tb00692.xand (1992) Therapy as Social Construction. London: Sage.and (1988) Lacan in Contexts. London: Verso.(1994) The Lives of Michel Foucault. London: Vintage.(1972) ‘The language of schizophrenia: a review and interpretation’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 120: 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.120.554.3(1987) ‘Thought disorder and measured features of language production in schizophrenia’, in P.D.Harvey and E.F.Walker (eds), Positive and Negative Symptoms in Psychosis: Description, Research and Future Directions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 195–215., , and (1989) Between Psychology and Psychotherapy: a Poetics of Experience. London: Routledge.(1984) In the Freud Archives. London: Flamingo.(1977) Nursing in Behavioural Psychotherapy. London: Royal College of Nursing., , and (1984) The Assault on Truth: Freud's Abandonment of the Seduction Theory. London: Harmondsworth.(1980) Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realisation of the Living. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-8947-4and (1988) ‘The bringing forth of pathology’, Irish Journal of Psychology, 9: 144–172., and (1986) ‘Racism and transcultural psychiatry’, in P.Miller and N.Rose (eds), The Power of Psychiatry. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1992) The Inward Gaze: Masculinity and Subjectivity in Modern Culture. London: Routledge.(1994a) ‘Warning signs given by mental patients who killed’, Guardian, 17 August: p. 5.(1994b) ‘Tranquilizers “kill one a week”’, Guardian, 27 August: p. 4.(1989) Racism. London: Routledge.(1986) ‘Psychotherapy of work and unemployment’, in N.Rose and P.Miller (eds), The Power of Psychiatry. Cambridge: Polity Press.(Miller, P. and Rose, N. (eds) (1986) The Power of Psychiatry. Cambridge: Polity Press.1977) Sexual Politics. London: Virago.(1974) Families and Family Therapy. London: Tavistock Press.(1974) Psychoanalysis and Feminism. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1982) ‘Language analysis in schizophrenia: diagnostic implications’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 16: 11–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00048678209161186and (1976) La Psychanalyse: Son image et son public,(2nd edn.Paris: Presses Universitaire de France.NACRO Briefing (1991) Race and Criminal Justice. London.[Page 154]1994) Let's Develop. A Guide to Continuous Personal Growth. New York: Castillo International Inc.(1974) ‘How babies communicate’, New Statesman and Society, 29: 345–347.and (1984) Integration of Special Hospital Patients into the Community. Aldershot: Gower.(1992) ‘Introduction. Reckless driving, casual sex and shoplifting: what psychiatric categories, culture and history reveal about each other’, Social Science and Medicine, 35: 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990114-6(1992) ‘Engendering paranoia in contemporary narrative’, Boundary 2: An International Journal of Literature and Culture, 19: 181–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/303455(1991) ‘Worthy of discussion: collaborative group therapy’, Australia and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 12 (4): 201–206.and (1991) ‘Foucault, psychiatry and the spectre of dangerousness’, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 2 (3): 238–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585189108407658(1982) ‘The language of paranoia’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(3): 275–282., and (1981) ‘Madness in fifth-century (B.C.) Athenian tragedy’, in P.Heelas and A.Lock (eds), Indigenous Psychologies: the Anthropology of the Self. London: Academic Press.(1992) Discourse Dynamics: Critical Analysis for Social and Individual Psychology. London: Routledge.(1995a) ‘Michel Foucault. psychologist’, The Psychologist, 8 (11): 214–216.(1995b) ‘ “Right” said Fred “I'm too sexy for bourgeois group therapy”: the case of the Institute for Social Therapy’, Changes: an International Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13 (1): 1–22.(Parker, I. and Shotter, J. (eds) (1990) Deconstructing Social Psychology. London: Routledge.Parker. I. and Spears. R. (eds) (1995) Psychology and Marxism: Coexistence and Contradiction. London: Pluto Press.1968) ‘Verbal behaviour in schizophrenia: a review of recent studies’, Psychological Bulletin, 70: 164–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0020191(Pepper. (1942) World Hypotheses. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.1969) Gestalt Therapy Verbatim. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.(1994) ‘Media images and popular belief’. Psychiatric Bulletin, 18: 173–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.18.3.173(1978) ‘Psychopathic behaviour: a historical overview’, in R.D.Hare and D.Schalling (eds), Psychoparhic Behaviour: Approaches to Research. Chichester: John Wiley.(1993) A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness. Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1992) Clinical Psychology Observed. London: Routledge.and (1978) Critical Theory (In the Family. London: Pluto Press.(1993) Comedy: the Ma, ten' of Discourse. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(Rabinow, P. (ed.) (1984) The Foucault Reader. Harmondsworth: Penguin.1982) Race, Culture and Mental Disorder. London: Tavistock Press.(1985) ‘The Italian psychiatric reform’. in S.Mangen (ed.), Mental Health Care in the European Community. Beckenham, Kent: Croom Helm.(1986) ‘The category of psychopathy: its professional and social context in Britain’, in N.Rose and P.Miller (eds), The Power of Psychiatry. Cambridge: Polity Press.(Ramon, S. and Giannichedda, M. (eds) (1989) Psychiatry in Transition: the British and Italian Experiences. London: Pluto Press.1970) ‘Schizophrenic thought disorder: a review and hypotheses’, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 11: 403–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X%2870%2990002-7(1987) Promoting Health Through Participation: Experience of Groups for Patient Participation in General Practice. London: Policy Studies Institute.and ([Page 155]1992) ‘Quo Vadis the Special Hospital’, in F.Scott, G.Williams, S.Platt and H.Thomas (eds), Private Risks and Public Dangers. Aldershot: Avebury.and (1979) Crazy Talk: a Study of the Discourse of Schizophrenic Speakers. New York: Plenum.and (1990) ‘Policing mental disorder: controversies, myths and realities’, Social Policy and Administration, 24: 226–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/spol.1990.24.issue-3(1961) On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1993) Accepting Voices. London: MIND.and (1992) ‘Coping with hearing voices: an emancipatory approach’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 161: 99–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.161.1.99, , and (1986) ‘Psychiatry: the discipline of mental health’, in P.Miller and N.Rose (eds), The Power of Psychiatry. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1989) Governing the Soul: Technologies of Human Subjectivity. London: Routledge.(1990) ‘Psychology as a “social” science’, In I.Parker and J.Shotter (eds), Deconstructing Social Psychology. London: Routledge.(1986) The Language of Psychosis. New York: New York University Press.and (1973) ‘On being sane in insane places’, Science, 179: 250–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4070.250(1975) ‘The contextual nature of psychiatric diagnosis’, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84: 462–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0077123(1976) Rumor and Gossip: the Social Psychology of Hearsay. New York: Elsevier.and (1990) ‘Psychopathic (sociopathic) personality disorder’, in R.Bluglass and P.Bowden (eds), Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. London: Churchill Livingstone.(1986) The Reality of Mental Illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (1990) Jacques Lacan & Co.: a History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925–1985. London: Free Association Books.(1984) ‘The Freudian Cover-Up’, Trouble and Strife, 4: 29–38.(1979) ‘The reconstruction of schizophrenic speech’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 134: 356–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.134.4.356(1985) ‘Language in schizophrenia: the structure of monologues and conversations’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 146: 399–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.146.4.399(1990) Cognitive-Analytic Therapy: Active Participation in Change. Chichester: Wiley.(1984) The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat. London: Duckworth.(1993a) ‘Identity politics: challenges to psychology's understanding’, American Psychologist, 48: 1219–1230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.12.1219(1993b) Celebrating the Other: a Dialogic Account of Human Nature. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1987) Abnormal Psychology: the Problem of Maladaptive Behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall.and (1969) Being and Nothingness: an Essay on Phenomenological Ontology. London: Methuen.(1974) Between Existentialism and Marxism. London: New Left Books.(1982) ‘Is there a schizophrenic language?’, The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 5: 579–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00013650(1994) ‘What the papers say’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 18: 489–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.18.8.489(1982) Psychopolitics. London: Pluto Press.(1978) Paradox and Counter-Paradox. New York: Jason Aronson., , and ([Page 156]1980) ‘Hypothesizing-circularity-neutrality: three guidelines for the conductor of the session’, Family Process, 19: 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.1980.19.issue-1, and (Rip Off Press (1985) Freak Brothers, No. O. London: Knockabout Comics./1993) Cultural Politics of Everyday Life: Social Constructionism, Rhetoric and Knowing of the Third Kind. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1987) Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830–1980. London: Virago.(1977) Models of Madness, Models of Medicine. London: Macmillan.and (1989) ‘The psycholinguistics of discrimination’, in B.Richards (ed.), Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: Free Association Books. pp. 217–227.(1983) Families, and How to Survive Them. London: Methuen.and (1984) Illusion and Reality: the Meaning of Anxiety. London: Dent.(1987) Taking Care: an Alternative to Therapy. London: Dent.(1993) The Origins of Unhappiness: a New Understanding of Personal Distress. London: Harper Collins.(1978) ‘K is mentally ill: the anatomy of a factual account’, Sociology, 12: 23–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857801200103(1988) ‘Does the history of psychology have a subject?’, History of the Human Sciences, 1: 147–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269518800100201(Socialist Health Association (1987) Goodbye to All That? Re-thinking the Politics of Mental Health. London: Socialist Health Association.1994) ‘To Make an Army out of Illness’, Asylum, 6 (4): 5–15.(1968) Research Diagnostic Criteria. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institutc.and (1991) Explaining Health and Illness: an Exploration of Diversity. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1993) Discoursing jealousy, in E.Burman and I.Parker (eds), Discourse Analytic Research: Repertoires and Readings of Texts in Action. London: Routledge.(1995) ‘Race, psychopathy and subjectivity’ Post-graduate work in progress, Manchester Metropolitan University.(1992) ‘Sources of misunderstanding in interviews with psychiatric patients’, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 1: 24–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.23.1.24(1994) ‘Some methodological issues in the analysis of psychotic speech’, Journal of Psycho linguistic Research, 23(1): 24–9.(1987) ‘Talk about talk: metacommentary and context in the analysis of psychotic discourse’, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 11: 395–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00048491and (1961) The Myth of Mental Illness. New York: Harper and Row.(1976) ‘Anti-Psychiatry: the Paradigm of the Plundered Mind’, The New Review, 3: 3–14.(1979) ‘Sigmund Freud: the Jewish Avenger’, in The Myth of Psychotherapy: Mental Healing as Religion, Rhetoric, and Repression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1991) ‘Challenging the dominant story: behind the “worthy of discussion” groups’, Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 4: 35–39.(1990) ‘Linguistic performance in schizophrenia: a comparison of acute and chronic patients’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 156: 204–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.156.2.204, , and (1976) The Freudian Slip: Psychoanalysis and Textual Criticism. London: New Left Books.(1990) ‘A critique of the DSM’, Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 3: 5–8.(1981) ‘French anti-psychiatry’, in D.Ingleby (ed.), Critical Psychiatry. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1987) Medical Power and Social Knowledge. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250426([Page 157]1991) Women's Madness: Misogyny or Mental Illness?Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1987) ‘Assertive speech acts in psychotic discourse’, in R.Wodak and P.Van de Craen (eds), Neurotic and Psychotic Language Behaviour. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. pp. 332–345.(1981) ‘Sex, power and pedagogy’, Screen Education, 38: 14–24.(1992) ‘The psychiatrist in American cartoons 1941–1990’, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85: 167–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acp.1992.85.issue-2(1994) Recovery from Schizophrenia: Psychiatry and Political Economy,(2nd edn.London: Routledge.1992) Mapping the Language of Racism: Discourse and the Legitimation of Exploitation. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.and (1987) ‘Family therapy and schizophrenia: addressing the “in-the-corner” lifestyle’, reprinted in M.White (1989), Selected Papers. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications, pp. 47–57.(1988) ‘The process of questioning: a therapy of literary merit?’, reprinted in M.White (1989), Selected Papers. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications. pp. 37–6.(1991) ‘Deconstruction and therapy’, Dulwich Centre Newsletter. 3: 21–40.(1990) Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Press.and (1994) ‘A sociocultural construction of “depressions” ’, in T.R.Sarbin and J.I.Kitsuse (eds), Constructing the Social. London: Sage.and (1993) ‘DSM-III and the transformation of American Psychiatry: a history’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 150: 399–410.(1958) Philosophical Investigations, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organzsation.1995) Prozac Nation. London: Quartet.(1988) ‘Practising RET with lower-class clients’, in W.Dryden and P.Trower (eds), Developments in Rational Emotive Therapy. Milton Keynes: Open University Press/Taylor and Francis.([Page 158]