Death comes to all humans, but how death is managed, symbolised and experienced varies widely, not only between individuals but also between groups. What then shapes how a society manages death, dying and bereavement today? Are all modern countries similar? How important are culture, the physical environment, national histories, national laws and institutions, and globalization? This is the first book to look at how all these different factors shape death and dying in the modern world. Written by an internationally renowned scholar in death studies, and drawing on examples from around the world, including the UK, USA, China and Japan, The Netherlands, Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. This book investigates how key factors such as money, communication technologies, the family, religion, and war, interact in complex ways to shape people’s experiences of dying and grief. Essential reading for students, researchers and professionals across sociology, anthropology, social work and healthcare, and for anyone who wants to understand how countries around the world manage death and dying.
Chapter 11: Modernizing the Nation
Modernizing the Nation
Nations have modernized in specific ways at specific times. Modernization may entail emancipation from feudalism driven by an emerging middle class (England, France, Sweden); appropriation and development of indigenous land by foreign settlers (Australia, Canada, Israel); colonization (India, Mongolia, Tibet); emancipation from colonization (USA, Finland, India, South Africa); controlling or balancing ethnic, tribal, and clan identities in favour of a national identity (Nigeria, Thailand, Singapore); erasing minor principalities to create a unified nation (Italy, Germany); or revolution (China). In each case, particular interest groups or leaders with the power to drive social and economic change create new institutions or take over old ones, setting up patterns of institutional power for decades to come. This much is clear from classic ...