D. W. Winnicott

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Michael Jacobs

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  • Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy

    Series editor: Windy Dryden

    The Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy series of books provides a concise, accessible introduction to the lives, contributions and influence of the leading innovators whose theoretical and practical work has had a profound impact on counselling and psychotherapy. The series includes comprehensive overviews of:

    Sigmund Freud

    by Michael Jacobs

    Eric Berne

    by Ian Stewart

    Carl Rogers

    by Brian Thorne

    Melanie Klein

    by Julia Segal

    Fritz Perls

    by Petrūska Clarkson and Jennifer Mackewn

    Aaron T. Beck

    by Marjorie E. Weishaar

    Albert Ellis

    by Joseph Yankura and Windy Dryden

    Joseph Wolpe

    by Roger Poppen

    George Kelly

    by Fay Fransella

    D. W. Winnicott

    by Michael Jacobs

    Copyright

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    Preface

    When the series editor offered me the opportunity to write about D. W. Winnicott, he gave me the chance to learn as much as I had done in writing about Freud, for the first volume in this series. As with that book, he provided me with the incentive to read more widely and more thoroughly in the considerable literature by and on Winnicott, whom I had up to that point quoted with obvious relish whenever I wished to find legitimacy for a less than orthodox view on psychoanalytic theory or practice. As I suggest in the closing paragraphs (which at this point are to the reader yet a long way off), I think I may not have been alone in using his name in this way. When teaching a course at the time of writing the concluding chapter, I commented to the group upon the informality with which Winnicott greeted Guntrip at the start of Guntrip's therapy sessions. The response from one course member illustrated a second way in which his name is used. She said, ‘Ah, but Winnicott was Winnicott.’ In other words, there are unorthodox ways in psychoanalysis, and that shows how progressive it is, but they are not for the likes of us. At first I was tempted to respond in turn that we are all Winnicotts, although I suspect that this would not have been in the spirit of the man. ‘We are all ourselves, and we might actually need to become ourselves’ would possibly have been a more appropriate reply, had I at the time thought quickly enough.

    In fact, as I discovered when I read through the sources on his life, Winnicott was not as unorthodox as I had imagined. The picture is a complex one, just as the politics of psychoanalysis is complicated, and he needs to be understood against that background. I have discovered the appropriateness of questioning both him and his ideas – more so than I had at first contemplated. I have also found a welcome for a critical stance from many of those whom I have consulted. Those who have studied Winnicott in depth do not idolize him in the way many of us who have casually quoted him sometimes appear to do. That has been both a relief for the writer and an incentive to do him justice.

    There were fewer resources than I had at my disposal for my earlier text on Freud. The books by Davis and Wallbridge (1981) and by Phillips (1988) provided clear pathways into the many ideas that Winnicott had generated. Here and there were other texts, which threw light upon his life, and which examined his theory and practice from different perspectives. I had at my disposal more of his papers in published form than I suspect Phillips had, even though Davis and Wallbridge would have had access to the same material in original documents and papers. I have also had the opportunity of meeting people who knew Winnicott personally, or who have devoted more time to the study of his work than I could ever have done in the relatively short time involved in writing this book. Such interviews gave me a taste of what it must be like to write a biography, especially the delight I experienced in talking with those who have valued Winnicott in person, or who so obviously enjoy their contact with his thinking. While hoping that one day there may be a more comprehensive and critical biography than has yet appeared, I had in my own less extensive researches a sense of what fascinating material and memories await such fashioning.

    The limited nature of my knowledge before I embarked upon my own writing here has meant that I have appreciated, even more than I did in the preparation of my other books, generous sharing of information and ideas, advice on sources and refinement of my sometimes inadequate comprehension. This has come from a number of people, some of whom I have met for the first time. I am grateful that this project gave me the opportunity to do so. My particular thanks go to Professor John Davis, who rightly cherishes not only both the Winnicotts but also his late wife's superb contribution to the editing and explanations of Winnicott's papers; to Professor Windy Dryden who gave me the opening for this subject, and whose editing of the text has been gentler than I have experienced before, leading me to hope that my grammar and sentence construction improve with age; to Nina Farhi and Louise Exeter – respectively director and general secretary of the Squiggle Foundation – for all manner of help from start to finish; to Dr Isobel Hunter-Brown and to the librarian of the Institute of Psycho-Analysis for searching out and supplying papers and chapters critical of and influenced by Winnicott; to Dr Peter Lomas for reading the text from another perspective and ensuring that I recognized both strengths and shortcomings in Winnicott's writing; to Dr Lynne Murray and Sheelah Seeley – director and researcher respectively at the Winnicott Research Unit in Cambridge – for explaining so fully their studies of as well as their work with mothers and babies, and for generously allowing me to draw upon their published and unpublished papers; and at the end of the alphabet, but in fact always there from A through to Z, my wife Moira Walker, whose judgement I always value, and whose love provides the best facilitating environment of all.

    MichaelJacobsLeicester
  • Select Bibliography of Winnicott's Works

    The starting point for an initial study of Winnicott must be his most famous book, The Child, the Family and the Outside World (Penguin Books, first published in 1964), much of it the text of broadcast talks. It has been the best-selling of all his works, and is still the most accessible in addressing a non-psychoanalytic audience/readership.

    It includes most of the chapters previously published in two separate volumes by Tavistock Publications in 1957: The Child and the Family: First Relationships and The Child and the Outside World: Studies in Developing Relationships. The second part in the second volume on children in wartime (‘Children Under Stress’) was omitted from The Child, the Family and the Outside World, but is now available with two other missing chapters, in the volume Deprivation and Delinquency, with another chapter, also not reprinted in the 1964 volume, on ‘Aggression’. It is replaced in 1964 by a chapter titled ‘Roots of Aggression’, while the two chapters are side by side in Deprivation and Delinquency. Two further omitted chapters from The Child and the Outside World appear in Society and the Growing Child. Only ‘Two Adopted Children’ and ‘The Impulse to Steal’ from the original 1957 set have not appeared elsewhere.

    The following were published or prepared for publication during his lifetime:

    Winnicott, D. W. (1931) Clinical Notes on Disorders of Childhood. London: Heinemann.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1958;
    second edn
    1975) Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis. London: Hogarth Press.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1965a) The Family and Individual Development. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1965b) The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development. London: Hogarth Press.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1971a) Playing and Reality. London: Routledge.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1971b) Therapeutic Consultations in Child Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.

    Of these, Playing and Reality is the most immediately relevant to the general reader, and the most reasonably priced. It contains the ‘Transitional Objects’ and ‘Adolescence’ papers, making it especially useful. Therapeutic Consultations is only available at present in hardback, unfortunately since it contains many fascinating case histories, most of which include use of the squiggle game. It provides the best insights into Winnicott's work with children of different ages. Like Playing and Reality and The Family and Individual Development, both soft-cover books, Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis and The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment, consist of papers read and published at different times, many of which are referred to in my own text. Clinical Notes on Disorders of Childhood is a book mainly on paediatrics. Two of its most relevant papers appear in Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis.

    The remaining books under Winnicott's name are drawn from his papers, and edited variously by Clare Winnicott, Madeleine Davis and Ray Shepherd, and Christopher Bollas, Ishak Ramzy and Masud Khan:

    Winnicott, D. W. (1980) The Piggle: an Account of the Psychoanalytic Treatment ofa Little Girl. London: Penguin Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1984) Deprivation and Delinquency. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1986) Home is Where We Start From: Essays by a Psychoanalyst. London: Penguin Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1988a) Babies and Their Mothers. London: Free Association Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1988b) Human Nature. London: Free Association Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1989a) Holding and Interpretation: Fragment of an Analysis. London: Karnac Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1989b) Psycho-Analytic Explorations. London: Karnac Books.

    My own evaluation leads me to prefer the first set of books listed, published in Winnicott's lifetime, to these later texts. The Piggle provides a less expensive way of viewing Winnicott's child work than Therapeutic Consultations. Human Nature, a little scrappy though it is, can be said to summarize usefully many of Winnicott's central ideas. Home is Where We Start From and Babies and their Mothers are reasonably priced, although not the most important collections of various papers. Holding and Interpretation, although the only long example of his own record of adult work, is by and large somewhat laboured reading. These later books are of course of interest to the serious student of Winnicott, and they are more suited to specialists and those who wish to follow his application of his psychoanalytic ideas to specific care settings and various professional groupings. We have to remember that although Winnicott was not slow to publish his papers generally, the books edited after his death consist in the main of papers to which he did not give priority (although there are one or two reprints of papers found in the books previously published). I acknowledge as I mentioned in Chapter 1, Madeleine Davis's comment on Winnicott's plan to publish ‘a mixture of unpublished papers and papers from journals and anthologies’ (Davis and Wallbridge, 1981: 173). But his judgement to hold them back even for the time being might have been correct, since these later works are not the essential Winnicott.

    References

    Anzieu, D. (ed.) (1990) Psychic Envelopes. London: Karnac.
    Bick, E. (1968) ‘The Experience of Skin in Early Object Relations’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 49, 484.
    Bion, W. R. (1977) The Seven Servants. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Bollas, C. (1987) Shadow of the Object: Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. London: Free Association Books.
    Bollas, C. (1992) Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self Experience. London: Routledge.
    Bollas, C. (1995) Cracking Up: Unconscious Work in Self Experience. London: Routledge.
    Bowlby, J. (1988) A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. London: Routledge.
    Brody, S. (1980) ‘Transitional Objects: Idealization of a Phenomenon’, Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 49, 561–605.
    Bronstein, A. A. (1992) ‘The Fetish, Transitional Objects, and Illusion’, Psychoanalytic Review, 79, 2, 239–60.
    Chodorow, N. (1978) The Reproduction of Mothering and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Chodorow, N. (1989) Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
    Clacier, A. and Kalmanovitch, J. (1987) Winnicott and Paradox: from Birth to Creation. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Clarke, A. M. and Clarke, A. D. B. (1986) ‘Thirty Years of Child Psychology: a Selective Review’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 6, 719–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.1986.27.issue-6
    Cooper, J. (1993) Speak of Me as I Am: the Life and Work of Masud Khan. London: Karnac Books.
    Davis, J. (1993) ‘Winnicott as Physician’, Winnicott Studies: The Journal of the Squiggle Foundation. 7, 95–7.
    Davis, M. (1993) ‘Winnicott and the Spatula Game’, Winnicott Studies: The Journal of the Squiggle Foundation. 7, 57–67.
    Davis, M. and Wallbridge, D. (1981) Boundary and Space: an Introduction to the Work of D. W. Winnicott. London: Karnac Books.
    Dinnerstein, D. (1987) The Rocking of the Cradle and the Ruling of the World. London: The Women's Press.
    Dockar-Drysdale, B. (1968) Therapy in Child Care. London: Longmans.
    Dockar-Drysdale, B. (1990) Provision of the Primary Experience: Winnicottian Work with Children and Adolescents. London: Free Association Books.
    Eigen, M. (1981) ‘The Area of Faith in Winnicott, Lacan and Bion’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 62, 413–33.
    Erikson, E. (1958) Young Man Luther. London: Faber.
    Erikson, E. (1965) Childhood and Society. London: Penguin Books.
    Farhi, N. (1992) ‘D. W. Winnicott and a Personal Tradition’, in L.Spurling (ed.), From the Words of My Mouth: Tradition in Psychotherapy. London: Routledge, 78–105.
    Ferguson, H., GilliganR. and Torode, R. (eds) (1993) Surviving Childhood Adversity – Issues for Policy and Practice. Trinity College, Dublin: Social Studies Press.
    Ferguson, S. (1973) A Guard Within. London: Penguin Books.
    Flarsheim, A. (1978) ‘Discussion of Antony Flew’, in S.Grolnick, L.Barkin, and W.Muensterberger (eds), Between Reality and Fantasy: Transitional Objects and Phenomena. London and New York: Jason Aronson, 505–10.
    Flew, A. (1978) ‘Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena: Comments and Interpretations’, in S.Grolnick, L.Barkin, and W.Muensterberger (eds), Between Reality and Fantasy: Transitional Objects and Phenomena. London and New York: Jason Aronson, 483–501.
    Freud, S. (1914) Remembering, Repeating and Working Through (Further Recommendations on the Technique of Psycho-Analysis II) (Standard edition, volume 12.)London: Hogarth Press, 147–56.
    Freud, S. (1927) The Future of an Illusion. (Penguin Freud Library: Volume 12.) London: Penguin Books, 183–241.
    Freud, S. (1933) New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. (Penguin Freud Library: Volume 2.) London: Penguin Books.
    Freud, S. and Breuer, J. (1895) Studies on Hysteria. (Penguin Freud Library: Volume 3.) London: Penguin Books.
    Fuller, P. (1988) Art and Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth Press.
    Gaddini, R. and Gaddini, E. (1970) ‘Transitional Objects and the Process of Individuation: a Study in Three Different Social Groups’, Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 9, 347–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2809%2961842-2
    Greenberg, J. R. and Mitchell, S. A. (1983) Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory. London: Harvard University Press.
    Grolnick, S. (1990) The Work and Play of Winnicott. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Grolnick, S., Barkin, L. and Muensterberger, W. (eds) (1978) Between Reality and Fantasy: Transitional Objects and Phenomena. London and New York: Jason Aronson.
    Grotstein, J. S. (ed.) (1981) Do I Dare Disturb the Universe? A Memorial to Wilfred R. Bion. Beverly Hills: Caesura Press.
    Grotstein, J. S. (1994) ‘The Poetics of Intimacy’, Winnicott Studies: the Journal of the Squiggle Foundation, 9, 48–57.
    Guntrip, H. (1975) ‘My Experience of Analysis with Fairbairn and Winnicott’, International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 2, 145–56.
    Hendry, E. (1987) ‘A Case Study of Play-based Work With Very Young Children’, Journal of Social Work Practice, 3, 2, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02650538808413365
    Hersov, L. (1986) ‘Child Psychiatry in Britain – the Last 30 Years’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 6, 781–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.1986.27.issue-6
    Hobson, R. F. (1985) Forms of Feeling: the Heart of Psychotherapy. London: Tavistock.
    Hopkins, J. (1990) ‘The Observed Infant of Attachment Theory’, British Journal of Psychotherapy, 6, 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjp.1990.6.issue-4
    Hughes, J. M. (1989) Reshaping the Psychoanalytic Domain: the Work of Melanie Klein, W. R. D. Fairbairn and D. W. Winnicott. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Issroff, J. (1993) ‘Kitchen Therapy’, Winnicott Studies: The Journal of the Squiggle Foundation. 7, 42–51.
    Khan, M. (1974) The Privacy of the Self: Papers on Psychoanalytic Theory and Technique. London: Hogarth Press.
    Khan, M. (1983) Hidden Selves: Between Theory and Practice in Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth Press.
    King, L. (1994) ‘There Is No Such Thing as a Mother’, Winnicott Studies: the Journal of the Squiggle Foundation, 9, 18–23.
    King, P. and Steiner, R. (eds) (1991) The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941–45. London: Routledge.
    Klein, M. (1975) Envy and Gratitude and Other Works: 1946–63. London: Hogarth Press.
    Lacan, J. (1949) ‘Le Stade du Miroir comme formateur de la fonction du je, telle qu'elle nous est révelée dans l'expérience psychanalytique’, in Écrits (1966). Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
    Lieberman, A. F., Weston, D. R. and Pawl, J. R. (1991) ‘Preventive Intervention and Outcome with Anxiously Attached Dyads’, Child Development, 62, 199–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130715
    Little, M. I. (1981) Transference Neurosis and Transference Psychosis. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Little, M. I. (1985) ‘Winnicott Working in Areas Where Psychotic Anxieties Predominate: a Personal Record’, Free Associations, 3, 9–42.
    Little, M. I. (1990) Psychotic Anxieties and Containment: a Personal Record of an Analysis with Winnicott. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Lomas, P. (1973) True and False Experience. London: Allen Lane.
    Lomas, P. (1987a) The Limits of Interpretation. London: Penguin Books.
    Lomas, P. (1987b) ‘Arrogant Insights’ – a Review of ‘The Spontaneous Gesture’. Times Literary Supplement, 24 July, p. 798.
    Mahler, M. S., Pine, F. and Bergman, A. (1975) The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. New York: Basic Books.
    Mancia, M. (1993) ‘The Absent Father: His Role in Sexual Deviations and in Transference’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 74, 941–50.
    Meisel, P. and Kendrick, W. (1985) Bloomsbury/Freud: the Letters of James and Alix Strachey, 1924–1925. New York: Basic Books.
    Milner, M. (1957) On Not Being Able to Paint (
    2nd edition
    ). London: Heinemann.
    Milner, M. (1969) In the Hands of the Living God: an Account of a Psycho-Analytic Treatment. London: Hogarth Press.
    Murray, L. (1989) ‘Winnicott and the Developmental Psychology of Infancy’, British Journal of Psychotherapy, 5, 3, 333–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjp.1989.5.issue-3
    Murray, L. (1992) ‘The Impact of Postnatal Depression on Infant Development’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 3, 543–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.1992.33.issue-3
    Murray, L. and Cooper, P. (1993) ‘Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory and Research: Change in Infant Attachment with Brief Psychotherapy’, in J.Richter (ed.), The Clinical Application of Ethology and Attachment Theory. Occasional Papers No. 9. London: Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15–24.
    Murray, L., Fiori-Cowley, A., Hooper, R. and Cooper, P. J. (1994a) ‘The Impact of Postnatal Depression and Associated Adversity on Early Mother–Infant Interactions and Later Infant Outcome’ (submitted for publication).
    Murray, L., Stanley, C., Hooper, R., King, F., and Fiori-Cowley, A. (1994b) ‘The Role of Infant Factors in Postnatal Depression and Mother–Infant Interactions’ (submitted for publication).
    Nezworski, T., Tolan, W. J. and Belsky, J. (1988) ‘Intervention in Insecure Attachment’, in J.Belsky and T.Nezworski (eds), Clinical Implications of Attachment. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Parker, R. (1994) ‘Maternal Ambivalence’, Winnicott Studies: the Journal of the Squiggle Foundation, 9, 3–17.
    Paskauskas, R. A. (ed.) (1993) The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones 1908–1939. Cambridge, MA. : Belknap Press.
    Phillips, A. (1988) Winnicott. London: Fontana.
    Phillips, A. (1993) On Kissing, Tickling and Being Bored. London: Faber.
    Phillips, A. (1994) On Flirtation. London: Faber.
    Pietroni, M. and Poupard, S. (1991) ‘Direct work with Children, Their Families and Other Caretakers – the Primary Focus’, in M.Pietroni (ed.), Right or Privilege: Post Qualifying Training with Special Reference to Child Care. London: CCETSW, 71–84.
    Rayner, E. (1990) The Independent Mind in British Psychoanalysis. London: Free Association Books.
    Riley, C. (1993) Review of Frances Tustin's ‘Autistic States in Children’, Winnicott Studies: the Journal of the Squiggle Foundation, 8, 76–83.
    Rodman, F. R. (1987) The Spontaneous Gesture: Selected Letters of D. W. Winnicott. London: Harvard University Press.
    Roudinesco, E. (1990) Jacques Lacan and Co.: a History of Psychoanalysis in France, 1925–1985. London: Free Association Books.
    Rudnytsky, P. L. (1989) ‘Winnicott and Freud’, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 44, 331–50.
    Rudnytsky, P. L. (1991) The Psychoanalytic Vocation: Rank, Winnicott and the Legacy of Freud. London: Yale University Press.
    Rycroft, C. (1968) Imagination and Reality: Psycho-Analytical Essays 1951–61. London: Hogarth Press.
    Rycroft, C. (1985) Psychoanalysis and Beyond. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Samuels, A. (1993) The Political Psyche. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359594
    Searles, H. (1960) The Nonhuman Environment. New York: International University Press.
    Searles, H. (1965) Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects. London: Hogarth Press.
    Seeley, S., Cooper, P. J. and Murray, L. (1995) ‘Health Visitor Intervention in Postnatal Depression, an Evaluation of the Outcome for Mothers and Babies’, Health Visitors Association (in press).
    Segal, J. (1992) Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Melanie Klein. London: Sage Publications.
    Spensley, S. (1994) Frances Tustin. London: Routledge.
    Spitz, R. S. (1965) The First Year of Life. New York: International Universities Press.
    Stern, D. N. (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant: a View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York: Basic Books.
    Tizard, J. P. M. (1971) ‘Obituary: Donald Winnicott’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 52, 3.
    Treurniet, N. (1993) ‘What Is Psychoanalysis Now?’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 74, 873–91.
    Tustin, F. (1986) Autistic Barriers in Neurotic Patients. London: Karnac Books.
    Tustin, F. (1990) The Protective Shell in Children and Adults. London: Karnac Books.
    Tustin, F. (1992) Autistic States in Children (
    revised edition
    ). London: Routledge.
    Usuelli, A. K. (1992) ‘The Significance of Illusion in the Work of Freud and Winnicott: a Controversial Issue’, International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 19, 179–87.
    Varma, V. P. (1992) The Secret Life of Vulnerable Children. London: Routledge.
    Winnicott, C. (1964) Child Care and Social Work. Welwyn, Herts: Codicote Press.
    Winnicott, C. (1968) ‘Communicating with Children’, in R. J. N.Tod (ed.), Disturbed Children. London: Longmans, 65–80.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1931) Clinical Notes on Disorders of Childhood. London: Heinemann.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1957) The Child and the Outside World: Studies in Developing Relationships. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1960) ‘String’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1, 49–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.1960.1.issue-1
    Winnicott, D. W. (1963) ‘Training for Child Psychiatry’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 85–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1963.tb02057.x
    Winnicott, D. W. (1964) The Child, the Family and the Outside World. London: Penguin Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1965a) The Family and Individual Development. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1965b) The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development. London: Hogarth Press.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1969) ‘James Strachey: Obituary’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 50, 129–31.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1971a) Playing and Reality. London: Routledge.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1971b) Therapeutic Consultations in Child Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1975) Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Tavistock Publications. First published 1958.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1980) The Piggle: an Account of the Psychoanalytic Treatment of a Little Girl. London: Penguin Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1984) Deprivation and Delinquency. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1986) Home is Where We Start From: Essays by a Psychoanalyst. London: Penguin Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1988a) Babies and Their Mothers. London: Free Association Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1988b) Human Nature. London: Free Association Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1989a) Holding and Interpretation: Fragment of an Analysis. London: Karnac Books.
    Winnicott, D. W. (1989b) Psycho-Analytic Explorations. London: Karnac Books.

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