Cultural Expression, Creativity and Innovation

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Edited by: Helmut Anheier & Yudhishthir Raj Isar

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    Foreword

    StuartHall

    This collection of essays follows through the line of inquiry opened up by the two previous volumes in The Cultures and Globalization Series. The aim of the series is to track the complex inter-relations between globalization and culture in its many forms in the contemporary world. Volume 3 identifies a particular site of such interactions defined by the inter-relationships between three aspects of the wider question: creativity and innovation, cultural expressions and globalization. The essays and papers collected here offer, from a variety of perspectives, a rich exploration of this field. They present a diverse set of examples and deepen our understanding and conceptualization of the complexities involved in these relationships.

    The three terms are fully defined in the wide-ranging introductory essay which frames the volume. Here, we try to set the stage for that investigation by looking briefly at the way the concepts have undergone significant changes of meaning in recent years and how these shifts affect their field of operations in the contemporary period. Creativity refers to the capacity, through imagination or invention, to produce something new and original (hence its close relationship to innovation). Innovation underscores the role which the idea of novelty has come to play in modern creative practices and the high value accorded to originality, Modernism's injunction to ‘make it new’, the significance placed on breaking traditions and the construction of radically new forms. Cultural expressions refer to the many forms in which the values, experiences, ideas, identities, beliefs, hopes, achievements and aspirations of a people or social group find expression and take significant – and signifying – form. Globalization marks the emerging inter-relationships and inter-dependences – economic, political, cultural – between different societies and parts of the world. Its contemporary form defines the new terrain on which cultural practices interact and the ‘global’ character which creativity, innovation and cultural expressions assume in their contemporary form.

    In western culture, much reinforced by Romanticism, creativity has been associated with the gifted individual, touched by genius, who is uniquely capable of bringing aesthetic expression to a high pitch of excellence. This excludes many of those civilizations in which the association of creativity with the individual is not so strong (which, of course, does not mean that individual practitioners have not been of significance in cultural practices and expression). In western societies, creativity implying a social group, rather than an individual authorship, is relatively new. More recently the terms creativity and innovation have been expanded to include many fields other than the aesthetic; and, more recently still, assimilated to technological, commercial, managerial practices, in self-inflating and commodified ways which make them virtually unusable.

    All these terms have been significantly redefined in recent decades and in general the principal shift of direction is from the individual to the social and collective. This reflects the application of sociological and anthropological concepts to cultural fields, originally thought of primarily in aesthetic terms. It entails the shift from ‘culture’ as the sum of particular works, texts and objects which constitute an ideal order against which universal judgements of value can be made – what Matthew Arnold once called ‘the best that has been thought and said’ – to what Raymond Williams called the social definition of culture: ‘a particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behaviour’1: culture as ‘ways of life’. This has shifted the location of cultural creativity and expressions, from the domain of high culture to the terrain of the popular, collective and everyday life.

    The redefinition also has to do with the transformation – one might even say the collectivisation or ‘massification’ – of social processes, which emerged in developed western societies at the end of the nineteenth/beginning of the twentieth centuries. This process has given us such terms as mass production, mass society, mass politics – and of course, mass media, mass communication and mass culture. It marked the reorganization of social production and consumption along more ‘Fordist’ lines, and was facilitated by the rise to dominance of the new mass technologies of culture. In his famous essay, ‘The Work of Art In The Age Of Mechanical Reproduction’, Walter Benjamin, anticipating the explosion in visual culture which was to come in the twentieth century, saw film as one of the earliest manifestations of this collective and technological transformation. He identified this not only in terms of the collective nature of cultural production and its relationship to its audiences but also in terms of the effects he predicted this would have in destroying what he called the ‘authenticity’ associated with the idea of ‘originality’ in art, the detaching of the work from, and the shattering of, tradition, and the destruction of the ‘aura’ of the individual artist and the individual work of art, still very much alive and kicking today. Theodor Adorno called these new technologies ‘the cultural industries’ but he intended to contrast these typical products of an ‘administered’, one-dimensional mass society with the critical and dialectical function which he thought could only be performed by the individual artist and the work of art. Though the tensions between high, mass and popular culture continue to resonate in cultural debates, few would find it possible these days not to regard these new media and technologies as potential sites of creativity and innovation. So when we say creativity, innovation or cultural expressions today, we must be conscious of the fact that we say them, as it were, after these great transformations in meaning, technologies and relationships have occurred.

    Globalization is the most radically transformed and transforming of all the terms. Ever since the moment of European exploration and conquest at the end of the fifteenth century, (which Marx identified as the beginning of a struggle to make the globe ‘a world market’), there have been successive waves of what can only be called ‘globalizations’. And since they involved, in different forms, conquest and the crossing of frontiers, the clash of cultures and traditions and the exercise of power in the ‘conscription’ of traditional cultures to modernity, they still have something important to tell us about what happens to cultural processes when distances, societies and economies are brutally condensed. However, there is nothing to compare with the scale and depth of contemporary globalization. The time-space condensations, the new global division of labour, the speed of the flows of capital, investment, profits, goods, services, images, messages and stories, the driving power and trans-national reach of the new cultural industries, the emergence of a ‘global’ consumer market inter-connected with the permeation of cultural models, information, goods, symbols, stories and languages across frontiers, the collision when different cultures, traditions, religious systems and forms of life are convened in the same space and struggle for rights and recognition, and – the dark underside of globalization – the trans-national character of migration and the movement and displacements of peoples: these constitute, if not an absolutely new historical reality, then a momentous epochal shift in global relations, which leave no relationships untouched. One feature is the way culture has become part and parcel of, harnessed to and mediating economic, geo-political and social relationships; and consequently the way the exercise of creativity, innovation and cultural expression has become intensely related to and caught up with the ‘play’ of power. These new features of contemporary globalization have transformed the meanings of these concepts out of sight.

    Globalization has therefore created new sites and arenas which, on the one hand, provide and enhance creative expressive possibilities, with groups and communities functioning as innovators in the role which the Introduction calls ‘social authorship’; at the same time – and for the same reason – they mark arenas of huge tension, resistance and difficulty. One powerful tendency in contemporary globalization follows from the permeation of cultural expressions in the flows across boundaries and frontiers. This is sometimes said to be a precondition of that ‘one world’ towards which globalization is supposed to be pointing us. It is sometimes argued that, in the post-colonial, free trade world, cultural globalization now operates on an ‘even playing field’; that the new global culture has no centre. This is to suggest that the one-way cultural flows characteristic of the imperial and colonizing moments have been surpassed.

    The most powerful tendency is certainly towards a kind of one-directional cultural homogenization, powered by trans-national flows, the cultural industries of the developed world and the new digital means of communication. It tends to favour the transmission of standardised products, standardized western models and meanings, using standardized western technologies and reflecting standardized western forms of everyday life. This has the effect of eroding local particularities and differences, producing in their place a western-oriented ‘world culture’, which bears the strong imprint of its sources of origin. The interplay between new cultural expressions and the rise of new consumer markets are part and parcel of the same process.

    The fact that cultural globalization has no one centre certainly does not mean that somehow cultural power has ceased to operate and that the power of the industrial and technological forces of modernity mediated by the western cultural industries have been suspended. The cultural field is not open or equal. It is not an ‘even playing field’. Contemporary globalization in all its aspects is a process of ‘combined and uneven development’ – ‘combined’ because it draws huge differences, disparities, historical divergences and temporalities together; ‘uneven’ because it creates greater disparities and inequalities – in resources, wealth, income, health, welfare, material well-being and cultural power – greater even than the differences and inequalities it claims to be surpassing. Paradoxically, however, creativity itself is not mal-distributed in this way. Those most marginalized in the global pecking order can, precisely, use their powers of creativity and innovation to describe and protest against the grim conditions of life these inequalities impose.

    The cultural fields into which these global forces penetrate are not an open, unstructured terrain either. They are densely constructed of impacted traditions, aesthetic values, belief systems, ways of life and creative forms and expressions which have long histories and coherences of their own. Though often represented as fixed and unchanging, they have in fact been modified over time, evolving and appropriating new materials. The consequences of the homogenizing processes, like the economic processes they mirror, are neither uniform nor are their effects as easy to predict as the power and reach of their economies and technologies would suggest. They have generated powerful defensive responses and resistances – fundamentalist or progressive – in the development of which creativity and innovation are necessary ingredients.

    In many places, the ‘debased’ cultural forms can and have been appropriated to local uses and meanings, borrowed, translated, indigenized and ‘vernacularized’ so as to express a very different kind of outlook and reality. To take just two examples: in what sense can the ‘soap opera’ about daily life, now a ubiquitous global popular form, any longer be said to be exclusively an ‘American’ form (though, in another perspective, it was indeed one of the great forms of American popular radio and television)? Or, to take another case: that great practitioner and innovator of reggae music, Bob Marley, used the most modern technological means of production (the sound system) and distribution (vinyl, the transistor radio) to make local rhythms ‘global’ and to transmit the styles, ways of life and troubles of Trench Town, a tiny, poverty-stricken and unknown urban community in the little-known island of Jamaica, familiar across the globe. Creative practitioners and innovators have been busy making the same forms and technologies speak of other different worlds.

    Diasporas where different peoples and cultures meet, occupy the same space and are often obliged to struggle against discrimination and racialized marginalization are, paradoxically, highly productive spaces, creatively producing a variety of new cultural forms and expressions which mark creative cross-overs. By translating between cultural languages, they create genuinely novel forms which, because they are hybridized, cannot be reduced to the original cultural sources and traditions which went into their making.

    Are these diasporas not also places where groups and communities can gradually lose touch with their authentic cultural origins and roots? This is never quite the zero-sum game which the beneficent term ‘creativity’ suggests. These crossings of cultural forms and models, the samplings and ‘versionings’, emerging where people are obliged to live together, struggle for space and speak across cultural languages are some of the most creative sites in the contemporary world. They may be the only places where displaced traditions – which in any event are not fixed forever in amber, but are more like what Paul Gilroy has called ‘the changing same’ – lose their absolute authority and inner certainties, and become more negotiable, translatable and open-weave. Perhaps this is indeed the nature of culture in modern global conditions: where that which seems unalterably fixed in the past, becomes an opening to the future. All displacements of peoples and migrations, as they say, ‘free’ or forced, always involve gains and losses. Indeed, to take the paradox one step further, the finding of significant form and voice for this sense of ‘loss’ and the ways memory intervenes to give it shape, are some of the most powerful sources of contemporary creative cultural expression. The terms creativity and innovation may soften or disguise the degree to which, in cultural collision of this kind, questions of identity, recognition and power are always ‘in play’.

    In this globalization ‘game’ there are no absolute winners and losers. Neither homogenization nor diversity can capture its contradictory movement and character. We lose everything if we force the contemporary forms of creativity and cultural expression into one or other end-point of this binary schema. Cultural globalization, like other aspects of the process, is profoundly and unalterably contradictory. We must continue to ‘speak it’ in this way. This volume of essays, in all their diversity of contents and theoretical perspectives, demonstrates the rich value of this paradoxical, oxymoronic approach.

    Note

    1 Williams, Raymond (1945) The Long Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

    Acknowledgements

    The Cultures and Globalization Series has relied on the support, advice and contributions of numerous individuals and organizations. We would endeavour to acknowledge and thank all of them here. In the ultimate analysis, however, the co-editors alone are responsible for this final version of the publication.

    International Advisory Board
    • Hugo Achugar (Uruguay)
    • Arjun Appadurai (India/USA)
    • Benjamin Barber (USA)
    • Hilary Beckles (Barbados)
    • Tony Bennett (United Kingdom)
    • Craig Calhoun (USA)
    • Georges Corm (Lebanon)
    • Mamadou Diouf (Senegal)
    • Yehuda Elkana (Israel/Hungary)
    • Yilmaz Esmer (Turkey)
    • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (Japan/USA)
    • Mike Featherstone (United Kingdom)
    • Anthony Giddens (United Kingdom)
    • Nathan Gardels (USA)
    • Salvador Giner (Spain)
    • Xavier Greffe (France)
    • Stuart Hall (Jamaica/United Kingdom)
    • Seung-Mi Han (Korea)
    • David Held (United Kingdom)
    • Vjeran Katunaric (Croatia)
    • Nobuku Kawashima (Japan)
    • Arun Mahizhnan (Singapore)
    • Achille Mbembe (Cameroon/South Africa)
    • Candido Mendes (Brazil)
    • Catherine Murray (Canada)
    • Sven Nilsson (Sweden)
    • Walter Santagata (Italy)
    • James Allen Smith (USA)
    • Prince Hassan bin Talal (Jordan)
    • David Throsby (Australia)
    • Jean-Pierre Warnier (France)
    • Margaret Wyszomirski (USA)
    • Yunxiang Yan (China/USA)
    • George Yudice (USA)
    Additional Support
    Text Boxes

    Karin Becker, Meghan Corroon, Todd Lester, Mailyn Machado, Ricardo Mbarkho, Peter Moertenbock, Helge Mooshammer, Ari Seligmann, Cylena Simonds, Nicole Vazquez, Indrasen Vencatachellum, Tereza Wagner

    Research Coordination for Indicator Suites

    Meghan Corroon, Michael Hoelscher and Tia Morita

    Research Assistance

    Antje Groneberg, Manar Nidah, Simon Scholtz, Nicole Vazquez, Elise Youn, Filip Zielinski, David Zimmer

    Design and Production

    In this issue, indicator suites were designed by students and alumni of the Design and Media Arts programme (D|MA) at UCLA under the direction of Willem Henri Lucas

    Alumni

    • Christo Allegra, D|MA MFA 2010
    • Jono Brandell, D|MA 2008
    • Levi Brooks, D|MA 2006
    • Luca de Sanctis Barton, D|MA 2008
    • Leon Hong, D|MA 2007
    • JJ Kaye, D|MA 2007
    • Fei Liu, D|MA 2008
    • Donnie Luu, D|MA, 2008
    • Camile Orillaneda, D|MA 2008
    • Mylinh Trieu Nguyen, D|MA 2007
    • Ryan Weafer, D|MA 2006

    Students

    • Sheriah Altobar, D|MA
    • Vincent Cordero, D|MA
    • Jason Hanakeawe, D|MA
    • Lindsay Harvey, D|MA
    • Derek Heath, D|MA
    • Alok Jethanandani, D|MA
    • Tiffany Payakniti, D|MA
    • Stephen Sulistiawan, D|MA
    • Christopher Tuyay, D|MA
    • Alyssa Wang, D|MA
    • Katherine Wu, D|MA
    Cover, Chapter and Divider Artwork
    • Emilia Birlo
    • with input provided by Paul Kästner, Rudolf M. Anheier, Manual Birlo and Stella Birlo
    Administration
    • Jocelyn Guihama
    Financial Support

    We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the following institutions:

    • Asia Research Fund
    • The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation
    • Compagnia di San Paolo
    • The Fritt Ord Institute
    • The London School of Economics
    • The Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development
    • The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
    • Swedish International Development Agency
    • UCLA International Institute
    • UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture
    • UCLA School of Public Affairs

    We would also like to acknowledge the support of:

    • Henrietta Moore and the faculty and staff of the Centre for the Study of Global Governance at the London School of Economics;
    • Stuart Cunningham and the entire faculty and staff of the Australia Research Council Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation;
    • Sarah Gardner and Diane Dodd of the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies;
    • Ursula Fischer of the Centre for Social Investment at Heidelberg University;
    • the University of Turin.

    Special thanks are owed to individuals and institutions in Sweden, who made it possible for the co-editors to organize the authors' meeting for this volume at the Museum of World Culture in Gothenburg on 11–12 April 2009. On 10 April, the Series was presented at a public symposium on ‘Cultural Policy and Globalization’ held at the Museum, where participants were welcomed by Dr Lars Nordström, President of the Cultural Committee of the Västra Götaland region, where the city is located. The idea of such a symposium-cum-authors' meeting was first discussed with Anna Thelin, then working at the Museum, at the 2008 Gothenburg Book Fair, where the Series was presented under the aegis of the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA); the idea came to fruition thanks to the support of the Director of the Museum of World Culture, Margareta Alin, David Karlsson, then Secretary of Sweden's Commission on Cultural Policy, and Mats Rolén of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation. Catharina Bergil and Anna Thelin expertly coordinated the Museum's support team which provided flawless logistics.

    Finally, the co-editors are most grateful to Tereza Wagner, Senior Programme Specialist in the Culture Sector of UNESCO. Formerly responsible for that organization's activities in favour of artistic creation, she played a key role in helping us identify authors from around the world as contributors to the present volume (see also her text box, 20.1).

    Contributors

    Huda Smitshuijzen AbiFarès is founder and director of the Khatt Foundation, Center for Arabic Typography. She is the author of Arabic Typography: A Comprehensive Sourcebook, Experimental Arabic Type, Typographic Matchmaking, and many other articles on multilingual communication in the Middle East. She holds degrees in graphic design from Yale University's School of Art and the Rhode Island School of Design and specializes in bilingual typographic research and design. She has taught typography and graphic design at the American University of Beirut. She was chair of the Visual Communication Department for three years at the American University in Dubai where she is Associate Professor of Graphic Design.

    Helmut Anheier (PhD Yale University, 1986) is Professor of Sociology at UCLA and Heidelberg University. He is the academic director of the Center for Social Investment at Heidelberg University, and director of the Center for Civil Society at UCLA's School of Public Affairs. From 1998 to 2002 he was the founding director of the Centre for Civil Society at the London School of Economics, where he now holds the title of Centennial Professor. Prior to this he was a senior research associate at the Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies, and Professor of Sociology at Rutgers University. Before embarking on an academic career, Dr Anheier served as a Social Affairs Officer with the United Nations.

    Rustom Bharucha is an independent writer, director, and cultural critic. His publications include Theatre and the World; The Question of Faith; In the Name of the Secular; The Politics of Cultural Practice; Rajasthan: An Oral History and Another Asia. He is a leading authority on interculturalism and has been a consultant for the arts service organization Leveraging Investments in Creativity, New York, sponsored by the Ford Foundation. He was on the consultancy team of a report on cultural diversity commissioned by the Arts Council in Ireland. In India, he is the Project Director of Arna-Jharna: The Desert Museum of Rajasthan, committed to the traditional knowledge systems of the desert.

    Karin Becker is Professor of Media and Communication Studies at Stockholm University and was previously a professor at the National College of Art, Craft and Design (Konstfack) in Stockholm. She began her career in the mass communication and journalism programme at the University of Iowa, specializing in documentary photography and photojournalism, and moved to Sweden in the mid-1980s. Her research focuses on cultural histories and contemporary contexts of visual media practices, in the press, in museums, in private settings and in ethnographic research. Her English publications include Dorothea Lange and the Documentary Tradition (Louisiana State University Press, 1980), Picturing Politics: Visual and Textual Formations of Modernity in the Swedish Press (JMK/Stockholm University, 2000), as well as numerous journal articles and anthology contributions, and she is co-author of Consuming Media: Communication, Shopping and Everyday Life (Berg, 2007).

    Enrico Bertacchini is a researcher at the Department of Economics ‘Cognetti de Martiis’ at the University of Torino and a fellow of the EBLA Center and NEXA Center for Internet and Society. His main research interests are cultural economics, law and economics and economic issues concerning intellectual property rights and knowledge sharing, with a particular focus on biodiversity and biotechnologies. He has recently worked as an external advisor for the Italian Ministry of Culture on the report on the role and impact of creative and cultural industries on the Italian economy released in May 2008.

    Paul Brickhill has worked continuously for twenty-eight years in African arts and culture. In 1997, he established Book Café, Zimbabwe's largest performing arts programme, and founded African Synergy in 2002 which focused on intra-African cultural exchange and media. He also co-founded Luck Street Blues in 1995, a jazz band in Zimbabwe, playing tenor sax. He has worked at a senior policy level in book policy in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique. He has co-authored a 13-country study on African textbook provision (published 2005) and has written about 250 features on the performing arts and publishing. He helped set up the Zimbabwe International Book Fair 1990, the African Publishers' Network (37 countries) in 1992, and the Pan-African Booksellers Association (14 countries) in 1997.

    Clayton Campbell is Artistic Director of the 18th Street Arts Center, Santa Monica; Artist Residency Advisor at United States Artists; Consultant to the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Residency Center; and a past President of the International Network of Residential Arts Centers (Res Artis). He has curated and organized over 250 artist residency projects within 26 countries. A visual artist himself, he also writes extensively for a range of arts journals. In 2002 he was named Chevalier de Arts et des Lettres by the French government for his work in international cultural exchange.

    Joni Maya Cherbo is an independent educator, writer and researcher who specializes in the arts and cultural policy. Dr Cherbo has had teaching positions at Hunter College, Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, the State University of New York and Purchase, and New York University, Arts Administration Program. She was the research director for the American Assembly's think tank meeting, ‘The Arts and the Public Purpose’, developed the National Arts Policy Roundtable for Americans for the Arts, and is currently engaged in an initiative to enhance international cultural diplomacy efforts.

    Meghan Corroon is the research coordinator for The Cultures and Globalization Series. She recently obtained her Master's degree in urban planning from the University of California, Los Angeles, and is pursuing a second Master's degree in public health. Her research and professional interests are focused on global city networks and the effects of urbanization on health outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. She has worked on several international development projects for both USAID and the World Bank. Additionally, she has conducted research for organizations such as WaterAid UK, the International Medical Corps, and the International Council for Science.

    Nancy Duxbury is an adjunct professor in the School of Communication at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. From 2005 to 2008 she was the executive director of the Centre of Expertise on Culture and Communities, a three-year research project on cultural infrastructure in Canadian cities and communities. Prior to that, she was Director of Research of the Creative City Network of Canada, and Cultural Planning Analyst at the City of Vancouver's Office of Cultural Affairs. Her research has focused on cultural infrastructure, cultural policy, cultural indicators, the involvement of municipalities in cultural development, and book publishing. She is the lead author of Under Construction: The State of Cultural Infrastructure in Canada, and editor of Making Connections: Culture and Social Cohesion in the New Millennium (2005).

    Laurent Gayer is a research fellow at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), attached to the Centre D'études et de Recherches Administratives et Politiques de Picardie (CURAPP), and a research associate at the Centre D'études de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud, Paris. He recently co-edited, with Christophe Jaffrelot, Milices Armées d'Asie du Sud: Privatisation de la Violence et Implication des Etats.

    Stefan Helgesson is a research fellow in the Department of Literature at Uppsala University. He has published widely on South African literature, lusophone literature, postcolonial theory and theories of world literature. He is the author of Writing in Crisis: History and Ethics in Gordimer, Ndebele and Coetzee (UKZN Press, 2004) and the editor of Volume 4 of Literary History: Towards a Global Perspective. His latest book, Transnationalism in Southern African Literature (Routledge), appeared in 2009.

    Michael Hoelscher is a lecturer in the Department of Sociology, Heidelberg University, Germany, and senior research fellow at the University of Oxford. His main fields of interest are cultural sociology, economic sociology, globalization processes, especially European integration, higher education and quantitative comparative methods. His publications include Wirtschaftskulturen in der Erweiterten EU (2006).

    Yudhishthir Raj Isar is Professsor of Cultural Policy Studies at the American University of Paris and Maitre de Conférences at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po). An independent cultural advisor and public speaker, he also serves on the boards of several international cultural institutions and writes on a range of cultural topics. From 2004 to 2008 he was president of the international association Culture Action Europe. Previously, at UNESCO, he was Executive Secretary of the World Commission on Culture and Development; in 1986–87 he was Executive Director of The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Christophe Jaffrelot is director of CERI (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales) at Sciences Po (Paris), and research director at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). He teaches South Asian politics to doctoral students at Sciences Po. His most recent publications include The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics, 1925 to 1990s; India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India; and Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. He has also edited Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation; Hindu Nationalism: A Reader and, with Alain Dieckhoff, Revisiting Nationalism._

    Dragan Klaic is a theatre scholar and cultural analyst. He serves as a permanent fellow of the Felix Meritis Foundation in Amsterdam and is a professor of the arts and cultural policy at the University of Leiden's Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts. He lectures widely at various universities, speaks at conferences and symposia, and serves as advisor, editor, researcher and trainer. His fields of engagement are contemporary performing arts, European cultural policies, strategies of cultural development and international cultural cooperation, interculturalism and cultural memory.

    Lily Kong is a professor of geography at the National University of Singapore. She is a social and cultural geographer who has published widely in a number of areas, ranging from cultural policy and creative economies, to music, religion, place histories and national identities. Her work has focused on the Asian cities of Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Taipei and Beijing. Her recent books include: Creative Cities, Creative Economies: Asian-European Perspectives; Singapore Hawker Centres; Landscapes: Ways of Imagining the World; and The Politics of Landscapes in Singapore: Constructions of ‘Nation’

    Diana Leat is a visiting professor at the Centre for Charity Effectiveness, Cass Business School, London, and a visiting research fellow at UCLA. Diana has held research and teaching posts at a number of universities and research centres in the UK, the USA and Australia. Most recently, Diana has been Research and Development Director at the Carnegie UK Trust. She is the author of over 100 articles and books on the non-profit sector and social policy. She is a trustee of the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund in the UK.

    Todd Lester is the founding director of freeDimensional. He is currently a fellow at the Gerhart Center for Philanthropy and Civic Engagement in Cairo and is a candidate for a doctorate on public and urban policy at the New School for Social Research from which he received a Film Production Diploma. He is a project leader at the World Policy Institute and a member of both the 21st Century Trust and Think Tank 30. He serves on the international advisory committee of the Club of Rome and was recently named an Architect of the Future by the Waldzell Institute. Todd is an adjunct instructor in media studies at the New School.

    Willem Henri Lucas (designer) is a professor in the Design I Media Arts department at UCLA. He studied at the Academy of Visual Arts in Arnhem, and did his post academic studies at the Sandberg Institute (Rietveld Academy), in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He works for clients mostly based in the fields of Culture and the Arts. From 1990 to 2002 he served as a professor and chair of the Utrecht School of the Arts' graphic design department. He won several ‘Best Book’ awards in the Netherlands and the US.

    Mailyn Machado is an art critic, curator and academic. She has a degree in Art History from the University of Havana, Cuba and was also awarded a Diploma in Art Criticism by the University of Girona, Spain. She currently teaches Art Theory at the University of Havana and is the editor of the Cuban magazine La Gaceta de Cuba. Her essays have appeared in many national and international publications.

    Malvika Maheshwari is a doctoral candidate in Political Science at CERI, Sciences Po, Paris working on the Hindutva movement and freedom of expression of artists in India.

    Ricardo Mbarkho was trained at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and Ecole Supérieure d'Etudes Cinématographiques, Paris and Institut Supérieur des Beaux-Arts, Beirut. He also completed an exchange study program at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. He currently lives in Lebanon and teaches art, video, and new media at the Académie Libanaise des Beaux-Arts, Beirut.

    Peter Mörtenböck is Professor of Visual Culture at the Vienna University of Technology and visiting fellow at Goldsmiths College, University of London. His recent practical and theoretical work has focused on spatial conflict, urban informality, models of networking and relational theories. He is author/co-editor of Die virtuelle Dimension: Architektur, Subjektivität und Cyberspace (2001), Visuelle Kultur: Körper-Räume-Medien (2003) and Networked Cultures: Parallel Architectures and the Politics of Space (2008).

    Helge Mooshammer is director of the research project ‘Relational Architecture’ at the Vienna University of Technology. He teaches at Goldsmiths, University of London and has been research fellow at the International Research Centre for Cultural Studies (IFK), Vienna, in 2008. His research and writing have focused on relational architecture, sexuality and urban culture. He has authored Cruising: Architektur, Psychoanalyse und Queer Cultures (2005) and co-edited Visuelle Kultur: Körper-Räume-Medien (2003) and Networked Cultures: Parallel Architectures and the Politics of Space (2008). With Peter Mörtenböck he initiated the ‘Networked Cultures’ project, an international research platform on the potential of translocally networked spatial practices, based at Goldsmiths College (http://www.networkedcultures.org).

    Gerardo Mosquera is a freelance curator and art critic based in Havana; Adjunct Curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York; advisor at the Rijksakademie van Beeldenden Kunsten, Amsterdam; and member of the advisory board of several art journals. He was a founder of the Havana Biennial, and has curated many celebrated exhibitions. Author of numerous books and texts on contemporary art and art theory, Mosquera edited Beyond the Fantastic: Contemporary Art Criticism from Latin America and co-edited Over Here: International Perspectives on Art and Culture.

    Catherine Murray is a professor in the School of Communication, co-director of the Centre for Policy Studies on Culture and Communities, and an associate of the Masters of Public Policy Program at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada. Her research interests include cultural participation and creative labour, cultural infrastructure and creative cities, cultural industries and especially broadcast policy, communication rights and global trade, and research design in policy evaluation. Dr Murray is a co-author of From Economy to Ecology: A Policy Framework for Creative Labour; Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Media in BC; and Researching Audiences.

    Rasoul Nejadmehr has a PhD in the philosophy of education from the University of London. He is an independent researcher, bringing together philosophical research and studies in cultural and educational policies. He is the author of Education, Science and Truth, published as part of Routledge's International Studies in the Philosophy of Education. He is a member of the Swedish Committee of the Inquiry on Cultural Policy, commissioned by the Swedish government to survey Swedish cultural policy. He is also a board member of University College Dance, Stockholm.

    Keith Nurse is the director of the Shridath Ramphal Centre of the University of the West Indies, after having served at the Institute of International Relations as academic coordinator of the postgraduate diploma in Arts and Cultural Enterprise Management. He has taught at the Institute of Business and the Department of Government, UWI, and the Institute for International Development and Co-operation, University of Ottawa. He has published widely on the trade policy and global political economy of the clothing, banana, tourism, copyright and cultural/creative industries; and on the impact of global restructuring on migration and diaspora, HIV/AIDS and security, and youth, gender and poverty. He is the author of Festival Tourism in the Caribbean and The Caribbean Music Industry.

    Annie Paul works at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, where she heads the publications section of the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES). She is also a founding editor of the journal Small Axe (Indiana University Press). Paul is the recipient of a grant from the Prince Claus Fund (Netherlands) in support of her book project, Suitable Subjects: Visual Art and Popular Culture in Postcolonial Jamaica.

    Walter Santagata is Professor of Cultural Economics at the University of Turin, Italy. He also serves as chairman of the Commission on Creative Industries of the Italian Ministry of Culture. His recent books include: La Fabbrica della Cultura (Il Mulino, Bologna, 2007) and La Mode, une économie de la créativité (La Documentation Française, Paris, 2005).

    Ivani Santana is a dancer and choreographer working in the field of dance-technology. She is a professor in the department of dance at the Federal University of Bahia. She has created and directed the Group of Technological Poetics in Dance since its inception in 2004. She is the author of Corpo Aberto: Cunniningham, Dança e Novas Tecnologias [Open Body: Cunningham, Dance and New Technologies], and Dança na Cultura Digital [Dance in the Digital Culture], and has written many articles for international journals. She was awarded the UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts – New Technologies 2006, as well as the artistic residence at the Centre Chorégraphique National, Aix-en-Provence, France.

    Ari Seligmann is an architecture critic engaged in broadening perspectives on global architecture and investigating the impacts of globalization on the built environment. He has participated in various international conferences and his work has been published in a range of journals. He has taught at the University of California, Berkeley; Woodbury University, the Otis College of Art and Design; and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as coordinator for the Laboratory for Cross-Cultural Studies in Architecture and Urban Design at UCLA, and currently is a lecturer at Monash University, Australia.

    Cylena Simonds is an independent curator and writer engaged in the politics of representation and the representation of politics, with special interests in moving image media, diasporic cultures and conditions of practice in developing countries. From 2004–2008 she was the exhibitions curator at Iniva, heading their on-site and touring exhibition programmes, as well as programming off-site public art projects. Her latest project was States of Exchange: Artists from Cuba, which was the first exhibition of contemporary art from Cuba to be shown in the UK since 1997.

    Maruška Svašek is senior lecturer in social anthropology at Queen's University, Belfast. Her principal research interests are in emotions, migration, art and material culture. Her current research concerns experiences of belonging and non-belonging amongst migrants in Northern Ireland. She is associate editor of the journals Focaal, European Journal of Anthropology and Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. Her major publications include Anthropology, Art and Cultural Production; and the edited volumes Postsocialism: Politics and Emotions in Central and Eastern Europe and Mixed Emotion Anthropological Studies of Feeling (with K. Milton). Svašek is coinitiator and director of the Cultural Dynamics and Emotions Network.

    Gilane Tawadros is a curator and writer. She was joint chief executive of Rivington Place and the founding director of the Institute of International Visual Arts, a contemporary visual arts agency in London. She has curated numerous exhibitions and written extensively on contemporary art. Recent titles include Changing States: Contemporary Art and Ideas in an Era of Globalisation and Life is More Important ThanArt. She is currently president of the International Foundation of Manifesta (Amsterdam) and a board member of the Forum for African Arts (New York), Photoworks (Brighton) and A Foundation (London).

    Julie Thomas (MA Harvard, MLitt Trinity College Dublin, PhD University of London) is Associate Professor of Global Communications at the American University of Paris, where she teaches courses on fashion, material culture, the museum as medium, and colour. She writes on colour in cultural space, digital interactivity (guest editor with Claudia Roda of the special issue on ‘Attention Aware Systems’ of Computers in Human Behaviour), the museum and cultural identity, and in 2004 organized the international conference Mediating Fashion, Mediating Paris at the American University of Paris.

    Eugenio Tisselli is a computer scientist and digital artist. He is a teacher and co-director of the Master's in Digital Arts at the Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. He has contributed an on-line seminar about digital interactivity to the UNESCO DigiArts programme. He has held the position of associate researcher at the Sony Computer Science Lab in Paris. His artistic work has been featured in multiple exhibitions and festivals throughout the world; it is available at http://www.motorhueso.net. He is the developer of Antoni Abad's http://zexe.net project, in which digital technologies and networks are used to give a voice to marginalized communities.

    Mo Tomaney originally trained in fashion textiles at St Martins School of Art; she has over twenty years' experience as a successful fashion and textile designer and has an MSc in social anthropology. Consultancies in South Asia and the Far East led to an awareness of labour standards in the fashion supply chain. She has held full-time positions at The Body Shop, where she was a fair trade development manager, and Levi's, where she worked on fabric development and sourcing. She is currently a research fellow in ethical issues and fair trade at Central St Martins and a senior lecturer at UCCA (Epsom) where she runs an MA in ethical fashion.

    Jason Toynbee is senior lecturer in media studies in the sociology department of the faculty of social science at the The Open University, UK. His research interests centre on problems of creativity and authorship in the media, with a special focus on copyright and cultural production. Much of his work takes popular music as a case in point. Among Jason's books are Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World? (Polity, 2007); Analysing Media Texts (with Marie Gillespie, Open University Press, 2006); and Making Popular Music: Musicians, Institutions and Creativity (Arnold, 2000).

    Peter Tschmuck is associate professor at the Institute of Culture Management and Culture Studies at the University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna. He also teaches courses at the University of Economics and Business Administration in Vienna, the University of Innsbruck, the University of Klagenfurt, and the Donau-University of Krems. His research focuses on the structure and processes in cultural institutions, arts management, the economics of the music industry, and cultural statistics.

    Nicole Vazquez is a 2009 graduate of UCLA's School of Public Affairs, with Master's degrees in social welfare and public policy with a concentration in international policy. She worked as a graduate student researcher for the school's Center for Civil Society during her tenure at UCLA, conducting research, writing, and editing for Center publications and reports. She intends to apply a global framework to civic engagement and community development work in Los Angeles by addressing social justice issues that disproportionately affect communities of colour.

    Indrasen Vencatachellum was born in Mauritius in 1946, completed his Master of Arts at the Sorbonne in Paris, and since 1976 has been involved in international cooperation for cultural development. He was formerly in charge of UNESCO's Division of Cultural Expressions and Creative Industries. In 1990 he launched the ‘Plan of Action for Crafts Development in the World’, and in 1995 the ‘Design 21’ programme; he was also managing editor for the practical guide entitled Designers Meet Artisans.

    Harold L. Vogel is the author of Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis and of the companion volume, Travel Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis. He was ranked as top entertainment industry analyst for ten years by Institutional Investor magazine, was the senior entertainment industry analyst at Merrill Lynch for seventeen years, and earned his PhD in economics from the University of London. His forthcoming book is Financial Market Bubbles and Crashes.

    Zala Volcic is a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Critical and Cultural Studies, University of Queensland, Australia. In her research she focuses on international communication, media and cultural identities. Her recently published articles include ‘Blaming the media: Serbian narratives of national(ist) identity’, in Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies; ‘Yugo-nostalgia: cultural memory and media in the former Yugoslavia’, in Critical Studies in Media Communication; and ‘Technological developments in Central-Eastern Europe: A case-study of a computer literacy project in Slovenia’ (with Karmen Erjavec), in Information Communication & Society.

    Tereza Wagner is a senior programme specialist at UNESCO dealing with arts and creative issues. Her graduate and undergraduate degrees are from Paris V University, France, including a doctorate in the anthropology of contemporary arts. She is currently in charge of coordinating events within the Cultural sector of UNESCO. She was part of the team that initiated the UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts and helped develop the DigiArts UNESCO Knowledge Portal (http://portal.unesco.org/digiarts), a web-based initiative which aims to promote ICT creative tools among young people at school level and disseminate on-line teaching and information on digital creation world wide. She has also published articles on African cinema, African contemporary arts and arts education.

    Christopher Waterman is an anthropologist and musician who specializes in the study of music and popular culture in Africa and the Americas. He is currently dean of the School of the Arts and Architecture at UCLA, which comprises six degree-granting departments: Architecture and Urban Design; Art; Design| Media Arts; Ethnomusicology; Music; and World Arts and Cultures. The school also houses the UCLA Herb Alpert School of Music (including the departments of ethnomusicology, music and musicology); five research centres (the Art | Global Health Center, the Art | Sci Center, the Center for Intercultural Performance, the Experiential Technologies Center and the Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts); and three internationally acclaimed public arts presenters (the Fowler Museum, the Hammer Museum, and UCLA Live).

    List of Boxes, Figures, Photos, Plates and Tables

    Boxes
    • 1.1 Cultures and globalization: the knowledge gap 2
    • 2.1 Digital arts and the cultural expression of young people, Indrasen Vencatachellum44
    • 2.2 Inspiring innovation and creativity in the workplace, Nicole Vazquez45
    • 6.1 Proxy servers: contemporary art practices in service economies, Cylena Simonds84
    • 13.1 Culture workers in distress, Todd Lester155
    • 15.1 Kumamoto's Artpolis: mediating innovative architecture and creative cultural expression, Ari Seligmann173
    • 17.1Networked Cultures, Peter Mörtenböck and Helge Mooshammer198
    • 18.1 Méduse Coopérative, Quebec City, Canada and Arts House, Melbourne, Australia 204
    • 18.2 The Artscape Wychwood Barns, Toronto, Canada and The Waag Society, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 205
    • 18.3 TOHU, Montreal, Canada and Haida Heritage Centre at Kaay Llnagaay, Haida Gwaii, Canada 207
    • 18.4 Art in the underground, Karin Becker209
    • 19.1Manga, graphic novels and the album, Meghan Corroon222
    • 20.1 Science and art in the digital era, Tereza Wagner232
    • 20.2 Art and nanotechnology, Nicole Vazquez233
    • 23.1 From mouth to mouth, from hand to hand, from computer to computer, Mailyn Machado268
    • 23.2 A different kind of media creativity in the Lebanon, Ricardo Mbarkho270
    Figures
    • 7.1 Expansion of copyright term in the USA 88
    • 16.1 The emergence of cultural paradigms in the twentieth century music industry 182
    • 16.2 The elements of a creative path in the music industry 184
    • 16.3 A model of paradigm shift in the music industry 185
    Photos
    • 12.1 Spread from the book Sabaa+7 [Seven+7] 133
    • 12.2 Spread from the book Al-Kharbasha [Doodles] 133
    • 12.3 Spread from the book Sabaa+7 [Seven+7] 134
    • 12.4 Spread from the book Qalb Al Madina [Heart of the City] 134
    • 12.5 Furniture pieces designed by Nada Debs 135
    • 12.6 Arabic Bling-Bling jewellery design playing with Arabic vernacular text and handwritten lettering designed by Nadine Kanso 136
    • 12.7 Three handbags from Sarah's Bag with reference to Arab vernacular visual culture and icons 138
    • 12.8 Accessories from Pink Sushi using a mix of Arabic vernacular text, lettering and images. 139
    • 12.9 ‘Salon’ installation Africa Remix, Hayward Gallery 140
    • 12.10 Left ‘Ahmed Lightin Up’ 2000. Right: ‘Ilham’ 2000 140
    • 12.11 Two examples of Dia Diwan website's newsletter displaying a range of products and topics 143
    • 12.12 Six examples from the winning designs of the ‘Project Muslaq’ Middle Eastern design competition, launched in June 2008 for the special edition of the Khatt Design Collection of vinyl wall stickers (for interior decoration) 144
    • 12.13 Cover of Typographic Matchmaking, written and designed by Huda Smitshuijzen AbiFarès 145
    • 12.14 Three different spreads from Typographic Matchmaking, written and designed by Huda Smitshuijzen AbiFarès 145
    • 13.1 Issa Nyaphaga with hands crossed in front of his face, Angele Etoundi Essamba 156
    List of Colour Plates
    • 3.1Apolitical, 2001, Wilfredo Prieto. 287
    • 4.1The Visitor, from The Benin Project, 2007, Uriel Orlow. 287
    • 4.2The Visitor, installation view, Friborg. 288
    • 4.3Perdre sa Salive (Wasting One's Spittle), 1994, Shen Yuan. 288
    • 4.4Transmission, 1990, Hamad Butt. 289
    • 5.1Hidden Agendas, 2008, painting, George Hughes. 289
    • 5.2Trophy Seekers, 2008, painting, George Hughes. 290
    • 5.3Mother Earth, 2008, painting, George Hughes. 290
    • 5.4 A participant from the School of Anthropological Studies in Belfast with the school flag, showing the image in Alder's book that inspired the flag design. 291
    • 5.5 Fante Flag, 2009, Marushka Svasek. 291
    • 5.6 George Hughes during the What You Perceive is What You Conceive performance in Belfast, 2007. 292
    • 10.1 A scene from the ‘subterranean’ satire Great Escape performed at the Book Café: the two central characters decide to ‘tunnel their way out’ of Zimbabwe… 292
    • 10.2 Flyer with Kaya logo, Book Café. 293
    • 10.3Barsiranai traditional dance group, Book Café. 293
    • 10.4 African jazz/blues guitarist David Ndoro improvises, Book Café. 294
    • 14.1 Mostar, where the statues of Bruce Lee were unveiled in 2005. Mostar is also famous for its historic bridge which was destroyed by the Croatian army in 1993 and since rebuilt. Photo: Zala Volcic, 2008. 294
    • 18.1 The historic Wychwood TTC streetcar repairs barn in Toronto before transformation into the Artscape Wychwood Barns. Photo: Edward Burtynsky. 295
    • 18.2 Plan for the Artscape Wychwood Barns, opened 2008. Photo: Nancy Duxbury. 295
    • 20.1Versus, 2005, telematic dance, Ivani Santana. 296
    • 20.2Versus, 2005, Ivani Santana. 297
    Tables
    • 6.1 The economic impact of diasporic Caribbean carnivals 81
    • 19.1Manga market data 222
    • 22.1 Spending on the arts as a percentage of total foundation spending 250
    • 22.2 Foundations' international giving 250
  • References Data Suites & Digests

    Policy
    Regulatory Frameworks
    1 & 2 WIPO (World Intellectual Property
    Organization) (2008) Treaties. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en
    3 WIPO (2008) Record Number of International Trademark Filings 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/2008/article_0007.html
    4 WIPO (2007) Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks. Summary Report for the Year 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2008, from http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/madrid/en/statistics/pdf/summary2007.pdf
    5 ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) (2008) Total Number of Records in the ISSN Register Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http://www.issn.org/files/issn/statistiques/total_numberofrecords.pdf
    ISSN (2008) Number of Records per Medium. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http://www.issn.org/files/issn/statistiques/number_of_records_medium.pdf
    6 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) (1998–2007) Annual Reports. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from http://www.iso.org/iso/annual_reports
    Digest: Regulatory Frameworks
    Anheier, H.K. and Isar, Y.R. (eds.) (2007) ‘Conflicts and tensions’, in The Cultures and Globalization Series1. London: SAGE Publications.
    Anheier, H.K. and Isar, Y.R. (eds.) (2008) ‘The cultural economy’, in The Cultures and Globalization Series 2. London: SAGE Publications.
    ISO (2009) ISO Standards. Retrieved January 13, 2009, from http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue.htm
    WIPO (2008) An overview. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.wipo.int/freepublications/en/general/1007/wipo_pub_1007.pdf
    Intellectual Property
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    2 Oberholzer, F. and Strumpf, K. (2004) The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales: An Empirical Analysis. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://www.unc.edu/~cigar/papers/FileSharing_March2004.pdf
    3 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) (2007) Patent Report 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2008, from http://www.wipo.int/freepublications/en/patents/931/wipo_pub_931.pdf
    Alexa: The Web Information Company (2008) Traffic rankings for http://openoffice.org. Retrieved November 22, 2008, from http://www.alexa.com/data/details/trafic_details/openofice.org?compare_sites=&range=4y&size=large&y=r
    5 Motion Picture Association of America (2005) The cost of movie piracy. Retrieved September 15, 2008, from http://www.mpaa.org/leksummaryMPA%20revised.pdf
    International Intellectual Property Alliance (2008) Statistics. Retrieved August 7, 2008, from http://www.iipa.com/statistics.html
    6 Creative Commons (2008) Metrics. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Metrics
    Digest: Intellectual Property
    Creative Commons (2009) About. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://creativecommons.org/about/
    North, D. (1992) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    WIPO (2008) What Is Intellectual Property? Retrieved September 27, 2008, from http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/
    WIPO (2009) WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Us. Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/iprm/index.html
    Investment
    Education
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    2 Eurydice (2008) Higher Education Governance in Europe. Policies, Structures, Funding and Academic Staff. Brussels: Eurydice. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/Eurydice/showPresentation
    3 Foundation Center (2005) Foundation Funding for Arts Education. An Overview of Recent Trends (p. 7). Retrieved December 4, 2008, from http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/research/pdf/arted05.pdf
    4 & 7 UNESCO (n.d.) Education Statistics. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=143&IF_Language=eng
    Mejer, L. and Gere, E. (2008) Education in Europe: Key Statistics 2006. Eurostat Data in Focus 42/2008. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-QA-08-042/EN/KS-QA-08-042-EN.PDF
    5 Fulbright Program (2008) Fulbright Grants for Graduate Study Abroad, 2006/2007 Competition Statistics. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from http://us.fulbrightonline.org/thinking_competition.html
    6 European Commission (n.d.) Erasmus Student Mobility 2006/07: Subject Areas. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from http://ec.europa.eu/education/erasmus/doc/stat/table207.pdf
    Digest: Education
    Card, D. and Krueger, A.B. (1998) ‘School resources and student outcomes’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 559: 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716298559001004
    Carey, N., Kleiner, B., Porch, R., Farris, E. and Burns, S. (2002) Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1999–2000. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2002131
    Cropley, A.J. (1999) Encyclopedia of Creativity (Vol. 1: 511–524). San Diego: Academic Press.
    Eurostat (2007) Key Data on Higher Education in Europe. 2007 Edition. Brussels: Eurydice. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/ressources/eurydice/pdf/088EN/088EN_002_INT.pdf
    Fineberg, C. (2004) Creating Islands of Excellence: Arts Education as Partner in School Reform. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Hanushek, E.A. (1996) ‘Measuring investment in education’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(4): 9–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.10.4.9
    Meyer, J.W. and Ramirez, F.O. (2000) ‘The world institutionalization of education’, in J.K.Schriewer (ed.), Discourse Formation in Comparative Education (pp. 111–132). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) (2007) PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World. Paris: OECD.
    Ramirez, F.O. and Boli, J. (1987) ‘The political construction of mass schooling: European origins and worldwide institutionalization’, Sociology of Education, 60(1): 2–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112615
    Renz, L. and Atienza, J. (2005) Foundation Funding for Arts Education: An Overview of Recent Trends. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/research/pdf/arted05.pdf
    Winner, E. and Hetland, L. (2000) The Arts and Academic Achievement: What the Evidence Shows. Executive Summary. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/REAP/REAPExecSum.htm
    Philanthropy
    1 FC Stats: The Foundations Center's Statistical Information Service (2008) Subject Focus of Grants Awarded by Size of Foundation, Circa 2006. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://foundationcenter.org/findfunders/statistics/pdf/04_fund_sub/2006/18_06.pdf
    2 FC Stats: The Foundations Center's Statistical Information Service (2008) Top 50 Recipients of Foundation Grants for Arts, Culture, and the Humanities, Circa 2006. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://foundationcenter.org/findfunders/statistics/pdf/04_fund_sub/2006/50_recp_sub/r_sub_a_06.pdf
    3 Foundation Center (2008) Grantmakers in the Arts. Foundation Grants to Arts and Culture: A One-Year Snapshot. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/research/pdf/artsfunding_08.pdf
    4 Foundation Center (2008) Highlights of Foundation Giving Trends (Foundations Today Series). Retrieved December 18, 2008, from http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/research/pdf/fgt08highlights.pdf
    Goodey, L. (2004) Key Statistics on the Top UK Grant-Making Trusts. Retrieved December 18, 2008, from http://www.cafonline.org/pdf/EuropeanFoundations.pdf
    La Fondation de France (2008) Les fondations en France en 2007. Fondateurs, secteurs d'interventions, poids économique. Retrieved December 18, 2008, from http://www.fdf.org/document?id=4827&id_attribute=48
    Salamon, L.M., Anheier, H.K., List, R., Toepler, S., Skolowski, S.W. and Associates (1999) Global Civil Society. Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies.
    5 Compagnia di San Paolo (2000) Annual Report. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://www.compagnia.torino.it/english/file/pdf/rapporto2000_ing_238.pdf
    6 BusinessWeek (2004) ‘The 50 most generous philanthropists’. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://www.businessweek.com/pdfs/2004/0448_philan.pdf
    Digest: Philanthropy
    Anheier, H.K. (2007) Nonprofit Organizations. Theory, Management, Policy. London: Routledge.
    CCSS (Center for Civil Society Studies) (2003) Global Civil Society: An Overview. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://www.jhu.edu/~cnp/research/index.html
    EFC (European Foundation Center) (2008) Foundations in the European Union. Facts and Figures. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://www.efc.be/projects/eu/research/FactsFigs.htm
    Foundation Center (2006) International Grantmaking Update. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://www.cof.org/files/Documents/International_Programs/2006%20Publications/IntlUpdateOct06.pdf
    Lawrence, S. (2006) Foundation Grants to Arts and Culture: A One-Year Snapshot. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/research/pdf/artsfunding_08.pdf
    Research & Development
    1 OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) (2007) Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/doifiles/922007081P1G1.xls
    2 OECD (2007) Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2007. R&D in non-OECD economies: R&D expenditures by performing sector. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/doifiles/922007081P1G4.xls
    3 R&D Scoreboard (2006) The Top 800 UK & 1250 Global Companies by R&D Investment. Commentary and Analyses. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://www.innovation.gov.uk/rd_scoreboard/downloads/2006_rd_scoreboard_analysis.pdf
    UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2008) Custom Tables. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=136&IF_Language=eng&BR_Topic=0
    4 BusinessWeek (2008) ‘The world's most innovative companies’. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://bwnt.businessweek.com/interactive_reports/innovative_companies/
    European Commission (2007) The 2007 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/research/scoreboard_2007.htm
    5 European Commission (2007) The 2007 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Monitoring industrial research (pp. 17, fig. 4). Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/research/scoreboard_2007.htm
    6 R&D Magazine (2007) Global R&D Report. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://www.rdmag.com/pdf/RD_GR2006.pdf
    Digest: Research & Development
    Chiesa, V. (1996) ‘Strategies for global R&D’, Research Technology Management, 39: 19–25.
    R&D (2008) Global R&D Report. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://www.rdmag.com/
    Goldstein, H. (2002) They Might Be Giants. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/archive/5754
    Moitra, D. (2008) Globalization of R&D. Leveraging, Offshoring for Innovative Capability and Organization Flexibility. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://publishing.eur.nl/ir/repub/asset/14081/EPS2008150LIS9058921840Moitra.pdf
    Monitoring Industrial Research (2007) Analysis of the 2007 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/research/scoreboard_2007.htm
    Monitoring Industrial Research (2007) The 2007 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/research/scoreboard_2007.htm
    BusinessWeek (2008) ‘The world's most innovative companies’. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://bwnt.businessweek.com/interactive_reports/innovative_companies/
    OECD (2005) OECD Factbook 2005. Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. Science and Technology: Expenditure on R&D. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://lysander.sourceoecd.org/vl=6585537/cl=16/nw=1/rpsv/fact2005/06-01-01.htm
    OECD (2008) OECD Factbook 2008. Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. Science and Technology: Expenditure on R&D. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://lysander.sourceoecd.org/vl=5862178/cl=27/nw=1/rpsv/factbook/070101.htm
    Diversity
    Institutions
    1 Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (2005, January 18) The Civil Society Sector at a Glance: Series. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://www.jhu.edu/~cnp/PDF/argentina.pdf
    2, 4 & 6 Union of International Associations (ed.) (2007) Yearbook of International Organizations (2005–2007), Vol. 5. Munich: K.G. Saur Verlag Gmbh & Company.
    3 Eurostat (2007) Cultural Statistics. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-77-07-296/EN/KS-77-07-296-EN.PDF
    5 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2007) Consultative Committees, International Commissions and Intergovernmental Councils. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3576&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
    UNESCO (2007) International Directory of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001497/149755m.pdf
    UNESCO (n.d.) UNESCO specialized networks. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3975&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
    UNESCO (2007) List of NGOs maintaining official relations with UNESCO. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://erc.unesco.org/ong/ONGlist_p.asp?language=E
    UNESCO (2008) List of foundations and similar institutions maintaining official relations with UNESCO. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://erc.unesco.org/ong/ONGlist_p.asp?language=E
    UNESCO (n.d.) UNESCO goodwill ambassadors. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=4053&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
    UNESCO (n.d.) UNESCO Education: University Twinning and Networking. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=41557&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
    UNESCO (n.d.) UNESCO specialized networks. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3975&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
    UNESCO (2004) Other networks. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3580&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
    Digest: Institutions
    Cox, T. (2001) Creating the Multicultural Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    European Commission (2007) Languages in the EU. Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/policies/policies_en.htm
    Gerhards, J. (2008) Transnationales linguistisches Kapital der Bürger und der Prozess der europäischen Integration. Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/soziologie/arbeitsbereiche/makrosoziologie/arbeitspapiere/pdf/BSSE_17_Transnationales_linguistisches_Kapital_der_B__rger.pdf
    Marquis, J., Lim, N., Scott, L., Harrell, M. and Kavanagh, J. (2008) Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory Analysis. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/2007/RAND_OP206.pdf
    McKinsey and Company (2007) Women Matter: Gender Diversity, a Corporate Performance Driver Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/paris/home/womenmatter/pdfs/Women_matter_oct2007_english.pdf
    McKinsey and Company (2008) Women Matter 2: Female Leadership, a Competitive Edge for the Future. Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/paris/home/womenmatter/pdfs/women_matter_oct2008_english.pdf
    Obuljen, N. and Smiers, J. (2006) Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Making It Work. Zagreb, Croatia: Institute for International Relations.
    Membership in Organizations
    1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6 World Values Survey (2006) World and European Values Survey (four wave integrated data file). Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/
    Digest: Membership in Organizations
    Burt, R.S. (2007) Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Putnam, R. (1994) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton,
    World Values Survey (2006) World and European Values Survey (four wave integrated data file). Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/
    Practices & Participation
    Events
    1 Frankfurt Book Fair (2002–2007) Facts and figures. Retrieved from http://www.buchmesse.de/de/fbm/allgemeines/facts_igures/
    2 London Book Fair (2009) LBF 2008 show visitor statistics. Retrieved from http://www.londonbookfair.co.uk/page.cfm/Link=27/t=m
    3 Feria Internacional del Libro de Buenos Aires (n.d.) Historia de la Feria del Libro. Retrieved from http://www.el-libro.org.ar/internacional/general/historia.html
    4 Festival de Cannes (2008) Facts and figures: Media coverage. Retrieved from http://www.festival-cannes.fr/en/about/factsAndFigures.html
    5 Festival de Cannes (2008) Facts and figures: Attending professionals. Retrieved from http://www.festival-cannes.fr/en/about/factsAndFigures.html
    6 Edinburgh Festival Punter (2009) History of the Edinburgh Festivals. Retrieved from http://www.edinburghfestivalpunter.co.uk/HistoryOfFestivals.html
    7 Edinburgh International Festivals (2002) Edinburgh International Festival Society: Review 2002. Retrieved from http://www.eif.co.uk/files/editor/documents/EIF_2002_Annual_Review.24.pdf
    Edinburgh International Festivals (2003) Edinburgh International Festival Society: Review 2003. Retrieved from http://www.eif.co.uk/files/editor/documents/EIF_2003_Annual_Review.23.pdf
    Edinburgh International Festivals (2004) Edinburgh International Festival Society: Review 2004. Retrieved from http://www.eif.co.uk/files/editor/documents/EIF_2004_Annual_Review.22.pdf
    Edinburgh International Festivals (2005) Edinburgh International Festival Society: Review 2005. Retrieved from http://www.eif.co.uk/files/editor/documents/EIF_2005_Annual_Review.21.pdf
    Edinburgh International Festival (2008) Artists Without Borders. Retrieved from http://www.eif.co.uk/news/highest-ever-ticket-sales-curtain-falls-2008-edinburgh-international-festival.html
    Edinburgh International Festivals (n.d.) Sparks Fly over Fringe Future. Retrieved from http://www.edinburgh-festivals.com/8048/Sparks-fly-over-Fringe-future.4442399.jp
    8 Asia Pacific Contemporary Art Fair (2008) Participating Galleries 2008. Retrieved from http://www.shcontemporary.info/sh_internal.asp?m=100&l=2&a=&ma=283&c=3659&p=100Best
    9 London Development Agency (2003) The Economic Impact of the Notting Hill Carnival. Retrieved from http://www.lda.gov.uk/
    Digest: Events
    Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Planning & Development in Trinidad & Tobago (2004) Carnival Report 2004. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from http://www.cso.gov.tt/files/cms/Carnival_Report_2004.pdf
    Edinburgh Festival Fringe (2008) Fringe Facts: Fascinating Fringe Facts 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www.edfringe.com/area.html?r_menu=global&id=48
    EIF (Edinburgh International Festival Society) (2008) Annual Review 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www.eif.co.uk/files/editor/documents/EIFAnnualReview2008.pdf
    Ferguson, B. (2008a) ‘Fringe ticket sales slump for first time in eight years’, The Scotsman. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www.edinburgh-festivals.com/festivalnews/Fringe-ticket-sales-slump.4424689.jp
    Ferguson, B. (2008b) ‘Sparks fly over Fringe future’, The Scotsman. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://news.scotsman.com/scotland/Sparks-fly-over-Fringe-future.4442399.jp
    Jagroopsingh, C. (2007) Carniomics: The New Economics of Carnival. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from http://www.cdsonline.biz/pdf/Carniomics06-02-2007.pdf
    Places
    1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 LDA (London Development Agency) (2008) London: A Cultural Audit. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.lda.gov.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.2538
    1 Berliner Statistik (2005) Tourismus in Berlin. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.businesslocationcenter.de/imperia/md/content/blc/dienstleistungen/tourismus.pdf
    2 Berliner Statistik (n.d.) Studierende und Studienanfänger im Wintersemester 2008/2009 in Berlin nach Hochschularten und Hochschulen. Retrieved from http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/Publikationen/Otab/2008/OT_B03-01-00_213_200802_BE.pdf
    3 Berliner Statistik (2005) Tourismus in Berlin. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.businesslocationcenter.de/imperia/md/content/blc/dienstleistungen/tourismus.pdf
    4 Berliner Statistik (2005) Tourismus in Berlin. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.businesslocationcenter.de/imperia/md/content/blc/dienstleistungen/tourismus.pdf
    5 Berliner Statistik (2005) Tourismus in Berlin. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.businesslocationcenter.de/imperia/md/content/blc/dienstleistungen/tourismus.pdf
    6 Kulturwirtschaft in Berlin (2005) Entwicklung und Potenziale 2005. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from http://www.berlin.de/projektzukunft/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/magazine/kulturwirtschaftsbericht_broschuere_2005.pdf
    Ländervergleich, E. (2008) Kulturindikatoren auf einen Blick. Retrieved from http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-portal/kulturindikatoren_2008.pdf
    7 Love Parade (2006) Retrieved December 22, 2007, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Parade
    Digest: Places
    Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley (n.d.) Measuring Progress Toward a Vibrant Silicon Valley. San José, CA: Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley.
    Florida, R. (2002) The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.
    Freeman, A. (n.d.) London: A Cultural Audit. London: London Development Agency. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.lda.gov.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.2538
    Heng, T.M., Choo, A., Ho, T. and Economics Division Ministry of Trade and Industry (2003) Economic Contributions of Singapore's Creative Industries. Singapore: Economic Survey of Singapore.
    Jackson, M.R., Kabwasa-Green, F. and Herranz, J. (2006) Cultural Vitality in Communities. Interpretation and Indicators. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Martin, P. (1996, February 22) ‘The exaggerated death of geography: Localised learning, innovation and uneven development’, Financial Times. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from http://www.utoronto.ca/onris/research_review/WorkingPapers/WorkingDOCS/Working01/Morgan01_Death.pdf
    Murray, C. (2003) Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B. C. to 1950. New York: HarperCollins.
    Sassen, S. (1991) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Scott, A.J. (2006) ‘Creative cities: Conceptual issues and policy questions’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(1): 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/juaf.2006.28.issue-1
    Scott, A.J. (2008) Cultural Economy: Retrospect and Prospect. In H.Anheier & Y.Isar (eds.), Cultures and Globalization 2: The Cultural Economy (Vol. 2, pp. 307–323). London: SAGE Publications.
    Simmel, G. (2000) Philosophie des Geldes (
    new ed.
    ). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Migration
    1 IOM (International Organization for Migration) (2005) World Migration 2005 Report. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.iom.int//DOCUMENTS/PUBLICATION/wmr_sec03.pdf
    UN (United Nations Department of Social Affairs Population Division) (2006) International Migration report 2006: A Global Assessment. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/2006_MigrationRep/report.htm
    2 MPI (Migration Policy Institute) (2005) Top ten countries with the highest share of migrants in the total population. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/charts/6.2.shtml
    3 MPI (2007) Regional remittances profiles. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/dataHub/remit_pdf/All_regions.pdf
    4 & 5 MPI (n.d.) Global city migration map. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/gcmm.cfm
    Digest: Migration
    Human Rights Watch (2004) France: Headscarf Ban Violates Religious Freedom. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2004/02/26/france-headscarf-ban-violates-religious-freedom
    IOM (n.d.) About Migration. Retrieved January 5, 2008, from http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/pid/3
    McGoldrick, D. (2006) Human Rights and Religion: The Islamic Headscarf Debate in Europe. Portland, OR: Hart.
    MPI (2007) Regional remittances profiles. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/dataHub/remit_pdf/All_regions.pdf
    Creativity & Hybridity
    Creativity & Innovation Indices
    1 Murray, C. (2003) Human Accomplishment. New York: HarperCollins.
    2 Gans, J. and Stern, S. (2003) Assessing Australia's Innovative Capacity in the 21st Century (pp. 30–31). Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.mbs.edu/home/jgans/papers/Innovation%20Index%20Australia.pdf
    3 THES (Times Higher Education Supplement) (2008) World University Rankings 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008, from http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/hybrid.asp?typeCode=243&pubCode=1&navcode=137
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2008) Academic Ranking of World Universities 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008, from http://www.arwu.org/rank2008/EN2008.htm
    4 BusinessWeek and Boston Consulting Group (2008) ‘The world's 50 most innovative companies’. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://bwnt.businessweek.com/interactive_reports/innovative_companies/
    5 Hollanders, H. (2007) 2006European Regional Innovation Scoreboard. Retrieved August 25, 2008, from http://www.proinno-europe.eu/ScoreBoards/Scoreboard2006/pdf/eis_2006_regional_innovation_scoreboard.pdf
    Digest: Creativity & Innovation Indices
    Amabile, T. (1996) Creativity in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Amirkhizi, M. (2008) Gunn-Report: BBDO liegt vorn. Retrieved February 9, 2009, from http://www.horizont.net/aktuell/agenturen/pages/protected/Gunn-Report-BBDO-liegt-vorn_80176.html
    Cropley, A.J. (ed.) (1999) Encyclopedia of Creativity. San Diego: Academic Press.
    Florida, R. (2002) The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.
    Gunn Report (2008) Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.marketingdirecto.com/estudios/Gunn%20Report%202008%20-%20Top%205.pdf
    Hemlin, S., Allwood, C.M. and Martin, B.R. (2008) ‘Creative knowledge environments’, Creativity Research Journal, 20(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400410802060018
    Simonton, D.K. (1999) Handbook of CreativityCambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Simonton, D.K. (1999) Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York/London: Guilford Press.
    Hybridity
    Languages
    1 Ethnologue (2005) Languages of the World. Retrieved May 9, 2009, from Ethnologue Web site: http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp
    2 Byte Level Research, MarketingSherpa, Inc. (2006) Website Globalization Report 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    3 SIL (Summer Institute for Linguistics) (1999) The World's Most Widely Spoken Languages. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/languages.htm
    4 Website Tips (n.d.) Font foundries. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://websitetips.com/fonts/foundries/
    Digest: Languages
    Dewey, M. (2007) ‘English as a lingua franca and globalization: An interconnected perspective’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17(3): 332–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijal.2007.17.issue-3
    Ding, S. and Saunders, R.A. (2006) ‘Talking up China: An analysis of China's rising cultural power and global promotion of the Chinese language’, East Asia, 23(2): 3–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12140-006-0021-2
    Hinnenkamp, H. (2003) ‘Mixed language varieties of migrant adolescents and the discourse of hybridity’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 24(1–2): 12–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434630308666487
    IOM (International Organization for Migration) (n.d.) About Migration. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/lang/en
    Phinney, T. (2006) A Brief History of Type. Retrieved September 26, 2008, from http://www.redsun.com/type/abriefhistoryoftype/
    Quetzal (n.d.) Conlang Directory: In Actual Use. Retrieved September 26, 2008, from http://www.quetzal.com/conlang/spoken.html
    Rizzo, A. (2008) ‘Translation and language contact in multicultural settings: The case of Asian migrants in Sicily’, European Journal of English Studies, 12(1): 49–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825570801900539
    The Blogosphere
    1 Technorati (2005, October) Retrieved May 21, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    2 Universal McCann (2008, April) Topics of Blogs According to Blog Writers Worldwide, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    3 OCLC (Online Computer Library Center, Inc.) (2007) Sharing, Privacy and Trust in Our Networked World. Retrieved May 21, 2008, from OCLC database.
    4 comScore Networks, Inc. (2007, October) World Metrix. Retrieved May 21, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    5 University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Center for Marketing Research (2008, July) Select Social Media Used by US Companies, 2007 & 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    Digest: The Blogosphere
    Technorati (2007) State of the Blogosphere. Retrieved June 23, 2008, from http://www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/000493.html
    WordPress (n.d.) Types of blogs. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://wordpress.com/types-of-blogs/
    ECO
    1 Nielson Online (2008) Greenwashing: Who's Winning the Green Race Online? Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://www.netratings.com/emc/0803_wb/NielsenOnline_Sustainability_Webinar_April%202008_Clients.pdf
    2 Loh, J. and Harmon, D. (2005) A Global Index of Biocultural Diversity. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from Science Direct database.
    UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (2007) Global Environmental Outlook: GEO4 Environment for Development. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from http://www.unep.org/geo/geo4/media/
    3 Earth Pledge (2008) New York Fashion Week 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://earthpledge.org/ff/designers-and-shows
    ecoStyle (2008) ecoStyle. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.ecostylemalaysia.com/
    Ethical Fashion Show (2007) A Fashionable Event. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.ethicalfashionshow.com/efs2/efs_2007.html
    Fashion Week (2007) Designers at Seattle's Green Fashion Week 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from http://fw07.com/designers.html
    Fasity (n.d.) Eco-Chic: Green Is Gold at Eco-Fashion Show. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.fasity.com/content/eco-chic-green-goldeco-fashion-show
    Green Cotton (2007) Eco Fashion Week in London. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://greencotton.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/eco-fashion-week-in-london/
    No Good For Me (2008) To Go: Catwalk on the Wild Side, SF Design Center Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://nogoodforme.filmstills.org/blog/archives/2006/06/08/to_go_catwalk_o.html
    Waitakere City Council (2006) The Trusts Trash to Fashion Awards. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/ArtCul/ae/trashtofashion/trashresults06.asp#supreme
    4 Zaucher, M. (2006) Biofuels: History, Current Use, and Policy. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jkohara/Biofuels_10_13_06.pdf
    5 Green Museum (2009) Environmental Artists. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.greenmuseum.org/archive_index.php
    Digest: Eco
    Chakrabortty, A. (2008, July 4) Secret Report: Biofuel Caused Food Crisis. Retrieved July 10, 2008, from The Guardian web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/03/biofuels.renewableenergy
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2008) World Food Situation: High Food Prices. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/FoodPricesIndex/en/
    Maffi, L. (ed.) (2001) On Biocultural Diversity: Linking Language, Knowledge and the Environment. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
    Stepp, J., Cervone, S., Castaneda, H., Lasseter, A., Stocks, G. and Gichon, Y. (eds.) (2004) Development of a GIS for Global Biocultural Diversity. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/stepp/PM13-Section3.pdf
    UNEP (2007) Global Environmental Outlook: GEO4 Environment for Development. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from http://www.unep.org/geo/geo4/media/
    Music
    1 Daddy Yankee (n.d.) Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daddy_Yankee
    Music Map (n.d.) Daddy Yankee. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://music-map.com/daddy+yankee.html
    2 World Music Central (2008) Directory of World Music Record Companies. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://worldmusiccentral.org/dokuwiki/doku.php/record_companies
    3 YouTube (n.d.) Reggaeton (search). Videos retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/
    4 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (n.d.) WOMAD 2003. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/world/womad2003/
    BBC (n.d.) WOMAD 2004. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/world/womad2004/
    BBC (n.d.) WOMAD 2005. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/womad2005/bestfest.shtml
    BBC (n.d.) WOMAD 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/worldmusic/womad2006/whatson.shtml
    BBC (n.d.) WOMAD 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/worldmusic/womad2007/listenagain.shtml
    eFestivals (2003) WOMAD '02. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.efestivals.co.uk/festivals/womad/2002/
    5 Lusk, J. (2008) Bassekou Kouyate & Ngoni Ba (Mali) Segu Blue. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from BBC Web site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/worldmusic/a4wm2008/2008_bassekou_kouyate.shtml
    Digest: Music
    All About Jazz (n.d.) Jazz history timeline. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/timeline_year.php?year=1897
    Oumou Sangaré (2007) Interview. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZwJmOausQg
    Papastergiadis, N. (2005) ‘Hybridity and ambivalence: Places and flows in contemporary art and culture’, Theory, Culture & Society, 22: 39–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276405054990
    Stokes, M. (2004) ‘Music and the global order’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 33: 47–72. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143916http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143916
    New & Syncretic Religions
    1 Adherents (2007) Major religions of the world ranked by number of adherents. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html
    2 Adherents (2007) Adherent statistic citations. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_99.html#688
    BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2003) Rastafari at a Glance. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/rastafari/ataglance/glance.shtml
    BBC (n.d.) Candomble. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/candomble/
    BBC (n.d.) Santeria. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/santeria/
    Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (n.d.) Vodun (and Related Religions). Retrieved January 9, 2009, from http://www.religioustolerance.org/voodoo.htm
    3 Adherents (2005) Predominant Religions. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.adherents.com/adh_predom.html
    4 Scientology Today (n.d.) Scientology Organizations Around the World. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.scientologytoday.org/around-the-world/index.htm
    Digest: New & Syncretic Religions
    BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (n.d.) Religion & Ethics. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/rastafari/history/history.shtml
    Chan, C. (2004) The Falun Gong in China: A Sociological Perspective. The China Quarterly. Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=248907
    Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do (n.d.) Cao Dai Principle. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.caodai.org/pages/?pageID=1
    Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life (2006) Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://pewforum.org/surveys/pentecostal/
    –Religious Movements Page (n.d.) Group Profiles, Links & Info. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://web.archive.org/web/20060902232910/religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/profiles/listalpha.htm
    SGI-USA (Soka Gakkai International-USA) (n.d.) About Buddhism. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.sgi-usa.org/
    Shri Swaminarayan Temple-Sansthan Vadtal (n.d.) 6. Meaning of Swaminarayan. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.vadtal.com/lord-swaminarayan.html#6
    Stewart, C. and Shaw, R. (1994) Syncretism/Anti-Syncretism: The Politics of Religious Synthesis. London and New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203451090
    Syncretism (n.d.) In http://Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Syncretism
    UPCI (United Pentecostal Church International) (n.d.) Divisions. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.upci.org/
    UUA (Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations) (n.d.) About the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.uua.org/aboutus/index.shtml
    Dance
    1 YouTube (n.d.) Breakdance, step dancing, krump, salsa dancing, capoeira, bhangra (searches). Retrieved December 11, 2008, from http://www.youtube.com
    2 Punjab Online (2008) Bhangra Competitions: A Bhangra Competition Resource Guide. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.punjabonline.com/servlet/entertain.competition?Action=Main
    3 Alexa (n.d.) Top sites in dance. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.alexa.com/browse?&Mode=Lang&CategoryID=35
    4 Perron, W. (2007, January) ‘25 to watch’, Dance Magazine. Retrieved December 11, 2008, from http://www.dancemagazine.com/issues/January2007/25-To-Watch
    25 to Watch (2007) Retrieved December 11, 2008, from Dance Magazine Web site: http://www.dancemagazine.com/issues/January2005/25-To-Watch
    25 to Watch (2008) Retrieved December 11, 2008, from Dance Magazine Web site: http://www.dancemagazine.com/25-to-watch.pdf
    5 http://About.com (2008) Hip-Hop Timeline: 1925–2007: The History of Hip-Hop Music. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://rap.about.com/od/hiphop101/a/hiphoptimeline.htm
    BOTY 2003 (2007) Battle of the Year. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.battleoftheyear.com/boty2003.htm
    Break Dance History (n.d.) Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.ultrakick.net/id10.html
    Rock Steady Crew (2009) Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.rocksteadycrew.com/
    Digest: Dance
    American Bhangra (n.d.) History of American Bhangra. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://www.americanbhangra.com/americanbhangrahistory.php
    Herbison-Evans, D. (2007) History of Modern Ballroom Dancing. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://linus.socs.uts.edu.au/%7Edon/pubs/modern.html
    Hip Hop Galaxy (2000) History of Breakdance. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://www.hiphopgalaxy.com/History-of-breakdance-hip-hop-2084.html
    IMDb (Internet Movie Database) (n.d.) So You Think You Can Dance. Retrieved January 16, 2009, from http://www.imdb.com/find?s=all&q=So+you+think+you+can+dance&x=0&y=0
    Kelly, C. and Thind, J. (n.d.) History of Bhangra. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from Punjab online Web site: http://www.punjabonline.com/servlet/library.history?Action=Bhangra
    Maira, S. (1998, November) ‘Desis reprazent: Bhangra remix and hip hop in New York City’, Postcolonial Studies. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from https://proxy.ucla.edu/auth?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fhttp://www.informaworld.com%2Findex%2FW596VG8PLK8UNNDY.pdfUNNDY.pdf
    Hiphop
    1 School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California at Berkeley (2003) How Much Information? 2003. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/printable_report.pdf
    2 Goldman, L. and Paine, J. (2007) Hip Hop Cash Kings. Retrieved May 9, 2008, from Forbes Web site: http://www.forbes.com/2007/08/15/hip-hop-millionaires-biz-cx_lg_0816hiphop.html
    IMDb (The Internet Movie Database) (n.d.) Artist name searches. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from http://www.imdb.com/
    3 Li, N. (2006) Se7en's Crossover Career Launch Press Conference in New York. Retrieved from January 7, 2009, from Asia Finest Web site: http://www.asiafinest.com/
    Nationmaster (n.d.) World Hip Hop. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/List-of-hip-hop-genres#World_Hip_hop
    4 Def Jam Records (n.d.) Company profile. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from Hoovers Online database.
    Def Jam Records (n.d.) Artists. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from http://www.defjam.com/site/home.php
    Universal Music Group (n.d.) Artists. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from Universal Music Group Web site: http://new.umusic.com/Artists.aspx?Index=2
    5 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2008) Top 40 RnB albums: 01.06.2008. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio1/chart/rnbalbums.shtml
    Billboard (2008) Top rap albums. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/chart_display.jsp?g=Albums&f=Top+Rap+Albums
    LetsSingIt (n.d.) Zaho – Dima tracklist. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://artists.letssingit.com/zaho-album-dima-4j2qnh
    MTV (2008) Single Jahrescharts 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2008, from http://www.mtv.de/charts/9905409
    http://Search.live.com (n.d.) Musicians. Retrieved May 11, 2008, from http://search.live.com
    Tower Records Japan (2008) R&B/hip hop. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://www.towerrecords.co.jp/sitemap/CSfRanking.jsp?PERIOD=WEEK_TOTAL&DISP_NO=002101003000
    Digest: Hiphop
    Audit Bureau of Circulations (2007) Consumer Magazines. Retrieved May 14, 2008, from http://abcas3.accessabc.com/ecirc/magtitlesearch.asp
    Chang, J. (2007, November/December) ‘It's a hip hop world’, Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 9, 2008, from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/users/login.php?story_id=3994&URL=http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=3994
    Chery, C. (2005) The Source Denied Multi-Million $$ Loan, Defends Circulation Drop. Retrieved May 14, 2008, from http://www.sohh.com/
    Christen, R. (2003) Hip Hop Learning: Graffiti as an Educator of Urban Teenagers. San Francisco: Caddo Gap Press
    Forbes (2007) #9 Jay-Z. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.forbes.com/lists/2007/53/07celebrities_Jay-Z_WRB5.html
    Kiley, D. (2005, May 16) ‘Hip hop gets down with the deals’, BusinessWeek. Retrieved May 9, 2008, from http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/may2005/nf20050516_5797_db016.htm
    Kitwana, B. (2003) The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture. New York: Basic Civitas.
    New York Times (2007, March 7) ‘Iconix to buy Rocawear, Jay-Z's clothing brand’. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/07/business/07clothes.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
    Roc-A-Fella Records (2006) Jay-Z biography. Retrieved May 21, 2008, from http://www.rocafella.com/Artist.aspx?v=bio&id=1&avid=121&idj=352
    Smith, C. (2005). Hip Hop Demographics: Beyond False Assumptions. Retrieved May 16, 2008, from http://www.prohiphop.com/2005/09/hip_hop_demogra.html
    Reality TV
    1 Shed Media plc (n.d.) Company profile. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from Hoover's Online database.
    2 IMDb (Internet Movie Database) (n.d.) Titles starting with ‘A’ in genre reality TV. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.imdb.com/TitlesByGenres?genres=Reality-TV&start=A&nav=/Sections/Genres/Reality-TV/include-titles
    M:Metrics (2006) Britain's Reality TV Craze Fuels Text Message Voting. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.mmetrics.com/press/PressRelease.aspx?article=20060306-smsvoting
    3 IMDb (n.d.) Reality TV titles by language. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Genres/Reality-TV/by-language
    4 Information Technology Associates (2006) ISO 3166 country codes. Retrieved May 26, 2008, from http://www.immigration-usa.com/country_digraphs.html
    IMDb (n.d.) Big Brother. Retrieved May 26, 2008, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0257295/
    5 Hetsroni, A. and Tukachinsky, R. (2003) “Who Wants to be a Millionaire” in America, Russia, and Saudi Arabia: A Celebration of Differences or a Unified Global Culture? Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Informaworld database.
    Digest: Reality TV
    Andrejevic, M. (2003) Reality TV: The Work of Being Watched. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2004) Arab Big Brother Show Suspended. Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3522897.stm
    BBC (2006) India to Get ‘Chaste’ Big Brother. Retrieved June 24, 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/5196018.stm
    BusinessWeek (2009, February 9) ‘Viacom conquers India via reality TV’. Retrieved February 9, 2009, from http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/feb2009/gb2009029_021919.htm?campaign_id=rss_daily
    Hight, C. (2001) ‘Debating reality TV’, Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 15(3): 389–395. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/305833_770849120_713657816.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304310120086867
    Hill, A. (2005) Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. Oxon, UK: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203337158
    MSN Entertainment (n.d.) Top Big Brother Facts. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://entertainment.uk.msn.com/tv/realitytv/article.aspx?cp-documentid=2126199
    Reuters (2008) CKX Inc (NASDAQ) company profile. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?rpc=66&symbol=CKXE.O
    Screen Digest (2005) Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, Big Brother, Pop Idol, The Weakest Link and Other Programme Formats Now Dominate the Global Television Industry. Retrieved May 28, 2008, from http://www.screendigest.com/reports/gttf05/EBAN-6BFCYH/pressRelease.pdf
    Body Art
    1 Australian Museum (2000) Headshaping. Retrieved June 13, 2008, from http://www.amonline.net.au/bodyart/shaping/headbinding.htm
    Ayeni, O. (2004) Observations on the Medical and Social Aspects of Scarification in Sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://www.med.uottawa.ca/medweb/hetenyi/ayeni.htm
    Campbell, A. (2004) FDA Approves Human Chip Implants. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.rfid-weblog.com/50226711/fda_approves_human_chip_implants.php
    Gupta, A. (2000) Mehndi. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://www.boloji.com/women/02007.htm
    Lim, L. (n.d.) Footbinding: From Status Symbol to Subjugation. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from NPR Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=8966942#8962920
    Mirante, E. (2006) ‘The dragon mothers polish their metal coils’, Guernica. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://www.guernicamag.com/
    Schepp, D. (2001) ‘Gold teeth are a gold mine’, BBC News. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://news.bbc.co.uk
    Tao of Tattoos (n.d.) Japanese Tattoos: Irezumi, the Art of Japanese Tattoos. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.tao-of-tattoos.com/japanese-tattoos.html
    UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) (2005) Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf
    Witt, S. (1999) Is Human Chip Implant Wave of the Future? CNN. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.cnn.com/
    2 Barendregt, A. (2003) World Bodypainting Festival 2003: Nachbericht. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from World Bodypainting Festival Web site: http://www.bodypainting-festival.com/deutsch/festival_2003.php
    Barendregt, A. (2004) World Bodypainting Festival 2004: Nachbericht. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from World Bodypainting Festival Web site: http://www.bodypainting-festival.com/deutsch/festival_2004.php
    Barendregt, A. (2005) World Bodypainting Festival 2005: Nachbericht. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from World Bodypainting Festival Web site: http://www.bodypainting-festival.com/deutsch/festival_2005.php
    Barendregt, A. (2006) World Bodypainting Festival 2006: Nachbericht. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from World Bodypainting Festival Web site: http://www.bodypainting-festival.com/deutsch/festival_2006.php
    Barendregt, A. (2007) World Bodypainting Festival 2007: Nachbericht. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from World Bodypainting Festival Web site: http://www.bodypainting-festival.com/deutsch/festival_2007.php
    3 Plastic Surgery Research.info (2008) Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Research: Statistics and Trends for 2001–2006. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistics.com/statistics.html#2007-HIGHLIGHTS
    4 IBISWorld (2008) Global Toiletries and Cosmetics Manufacturing: Global Industry Report. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.ibisworld.com/globalindustry/keycompetitors.aspx?indid=730
    5 Global Cosmetic Industry (2008) Global hair care product retail values by geographic region in dollars for 2002 and 2007, and forecast for 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from Euromonitor International database.
    6 Plastic Surgery Research.info (2008) Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Research: Statistics and Trends for 2001–2006. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from http://www.cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistics.com/statistics.html#2007-HIGHLIGHTS
    Digest: Body Art
    Australian Museum (2000) The Meaning of Ta Moko – Maori Tattooing. Retrieved June 13, 2008, from http://www.austmus.gov.au/BODYART/tattooing/tamoko.htm
    Bristol Evening Post (2008, May 3) ‘The history of tattoos’. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from Factiva database.
    http://LatinRapper.com (2004) Interview with tattoo artist Mister Cartoon. Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://latinrapper.com/featurednews3.html
    Laurance, J. (2008) One in Four Body Piercings Goes Wrong. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.
    Millner, V. and Eichold, B. (2001) Body Piercing and Tattooing Perspectives. Retrieved May 22, 2008, from http://cnr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/10/4/424
    Mister Cartoon (2008) Tattoos. Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.mistercartoon.com/recent7.html
    Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (2007) How Young People View Their Lives, Futures and Politics. Retrieved June 12, 2008, from http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/300.pdf
    Roberts, L. (2004) The History of Body Piercings: Ancient and Fascinating Around the World. Retrieved February 9, 2009, from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-History-of-Body-Piercings-Ancient-and-Fascinating-Around-the-World&id=2948
    Robertson, C. (2005) The Rich History of Body Piercing: Almost as Old as Mankind. Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Rich-History-of-Body-Piercing:-Almost-as-Old-as-Mankind&id=116095
    Smithsonian (2007, January 1) ‘Tattoos: The ancient and mysterious history’. Retrieved June 13, 2008, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/historyarchaeology/tattoo.html
    Watson, P. (2008, April 15) Pride of Face in New Zealand. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://articles.latimes.com/2008/apr/15/world/fg-tattoo15
    Web 2.0
    1 Lipsman, A. (2007) Social Networking Goes Global. Retrieved May 12, 2008, from http://www.comscore.com
    Shabelman, D. (2008, January 3) While Rival LinkedIn Thrives, Plaxo Fails to Shine. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from http://www.thedeal.com/
    2 & 3 Universal McCann (2008) Power to the People: Social Media Tracker Wave 3. Retrieved April 17, 2009, from http://www.universalmccann.com/Assets/wave_3_20080403093750.pdf
    4 Facebook Business Solutions (n.d.) Top 20 FaceBook pages for August 4, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from eMarketer Online database.
    5 USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future (2006, November 21) Lessons Learned From Six Years in the Field (PowerPoint slides). Retrieved May 15, 2007, from Google Scholar.
    6 Brown, M. (2006) Brandz: Top 100 Most Powerful Brands. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.millwardbrown.com/Sites/Optimor/Media/Pdfs/en/BrandZ/BrandZ-2006-Top100Brands.pdf
    Brown, M. (2007) Brandz: Top 100 Most Powerful Brands. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.brandz.com/upload/BrandZ_2007_Ranking_Report.pdf
    Brown, M. (2008) Brandz: Top 100 Most Powerful Brands. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from http://www.millwardbrown.com/Sites/Optimor/Media/Pdfs/en/BrandZ/BrandZ-2008-Report.pdf
    7 Nielsen Mobile (2007) Retrieved July 24, 2008, from TableBase database.
    8 Kearney, A.T. (2005) Mobinet 2005. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from eMarketer database.
    9 Rider Research (n.d.) Online Reporter: 15, February 16, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    Digest: Web 2.0
    Ahonen, T. (2008) When There Is a Mobile Phone for Half the Planet: Understanding the Biggest Technology. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://communities-dominate.blogs.com/brands/2008/01/when-there-is-a.html
    Gauntt, J. (2008) Mobile BRIC: Extreme Growth Ahead. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    Internet World Statistics (2008) Internet Usage Statistics: The Internet Big Picture. Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
    Naone, E. (2008, July/August) ‘Who owns your friends?’Technology Review. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) (2007) Sharing, Privacy and Trust in Our Networked World. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    O'Reilly, T. (2005, September 30) What Is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
    Perez, J.C. (2007, February 17) ‘Wikipedia breaks into U.S. top ten sites’, PC World. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://www.pcworld.com/article/129135/wikipedia_breaks_into_us_top_10_sites.htmland#
    Stewart, D. (2008, May 8) The Empathy Economy: CSR and Web 2.0. Fairer Globalization. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://fairerglobalization.blogspot.com/2008/05/empathy-economy-csr-and-web-20.html
    Talbot, D. (2008, July/August) ‘Vast new oceans of data’, Technology Review. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Urstadt, B. and Grifantini, K. (2008, July/August) ‘Social networking is not a business’, Technology Review. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Verna, P. (2007) User-Generated Content: Will Web 2.0 Pay Its Way? Retrieved September 4, 2008, from eMarketer database.
    Yahoo News (2008, August 13) Facebook Is Online Social Networking King. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080813/tc_afp/lifestyleusitinternetcompanyfacebook_080813234833

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