Cultural Expression, Creativity and Innovation
Publication Year: 2010
Volume 3 of the Cultures & Globalization series, Creativity and Innovations, explores the interactions between globalization and the forms of cultural expression that are their basic resource. Bringing together over 25 high-profile authors from around the world, this volume addresses such questions as: What impacts does globalization have on cultural creativity and innovation? How is the evolving world ‘map’ of creativity related to the drivers and patterns of globalization? What are the relationships between creative acts, clusters, genres or institutions and cultural diversity?
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Issues and Patterns in Cultural Expression
- Overarching Issues
- Chapter 1: Creativity: Alternative Paradigms to the ‘Creative Economy’
- Chapter 2: Recognition and Artistic Creativity
- Chapter 3: Walking with the Devil: Art, Culture and Internationalization
- Chapter 4: … But What is the Question? Art, Research and the Production of Knowledge
- Chapter 5: Improvising in a World of Movement: Transit, Transition and Transformation
- Chapter 6: Diasporic Spaces: Migration, Hybridity and the Geocultural Turn
- Chapter 7: Creativity and Intellectual Property Rights
- Chapter 8: Exile, Culture and Identity
- Chapter 9: The ‘Creativity’ of Evil?
- Regional Realities
- Chapter 10: The ‘Creator’ as Entrepreneur: An African Perspective
- Chapter 11: The Turn of the Native: Vernacular Creativity in the Caribbean
- Chapter 12: Creative Contemporary Design in the Arab World
- Chapter 13: Cultural Policing in South Asia: An Anti-Globalization Backlash against Freedom of Expression?
- Chapter 14: The Struggle to Express, Create and Represent in the Balkans
- Chapter 15: Creative Economy, Global City: Globalizing Discourses and the Implications for Local Arts
- Genres and Issues
- Chapter 16: The Cycles of Creativity in the Music Industry
- Chapter 17: Creative Communities and Emerging Networks
- Chapter 18: Creative Spaces
- Chapter 19: Literary Hybrids and the Circuits of Translation: The Example of Mia Couto
- Chapter 20: Emergences in Digital Culture
- Chapter 21: Fashion and Ethics: Reinventing Models of Consumption and Creativity in a Global Industry
- Chapter 22: Creativity and Innovation: The Role of Philanthropy
- Chapter 23: Digital Networks and Social Innovation: Strategies of the Imagination
- Chapter 24: Closing Reflections
- Colour Plate Section
Part 2: Indicator Suites
- Chapter 2.1: Cultural Indicator Suites: An Introduction
- Chapter 2.2: Creativity Indexes
- Chapter 2.3: Measuring Creativity and Innovation
- Data Suites
- Creativity and Hybridity
- Chapter 2.4: Creativity, Innovation, Globalization: What International Experts Think
Introduction and Editorial Arrangement © Helmut Anheier and Yudhishthir Raj Isar 2010, Chapters © Contributors 2010
First published 2010
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This collection of essays follows through the line of inquiry opened up by the two previous volumes in The Cultures and Globalization Series. The aim of the series is to track the complex inter-relations between globalization and culture in its many forms in the contemporary world. Volume 3 identifies a particular site of such interactions defined by the inter-relationships between three aspects of the wider question: creativity and innovation, cultural expressions and globalization. The essays and papers collected here offer, from a variety of perspectives, a rich exploration of this field. They present a diverse set of examples and deepen our understanding and conceptualization of the complexities involved in these relationships.
The three terms are fully defined in the wide-ranging introductory essay which frames the volume. Here, we try to set the stage for that investigation by looking briefly at the way the concepts have undergone significant changes of meaning in recent years and how these shifts affect their field of operations in the contemporary period. Creativity refers to the capacity, through imagination or invention, to produce something new and original (hence its close relationship to innovation). Innovation underscores the role which the idea of novelty has come to play in modern creative practices and the high value accorded to originality, Modernism's injunction to ‘make it new’, the significance placed on breaking traditions and the construction of radically new forms. Cultural expressions refer to the many forms in which the values, experiences, ideas, identities, beliefs, hopes, achievements and aspirations of a people or social group find expression and take significant – and signifying – form. Globalization marks the emerging inter-relationships and inter-dependences – economic, political, cultural – between different societies and parts of the world. Its contemporary form defines the new terrain on which cultural practices interact and the ‘global’ character which creativity, innovation and cultural expressions assume in their contemporary form.
In western culture, much reinforced by Romanticism, creativity has been associated with the gifted individual, touched by genius, who is uniquely capable of bringing aesthetic expression to a high pitch of excellence. This excludes many of those civilizations in which the association of creativity with the individual is not so strong (which, [Page x]of course, does not mean that individual practitioners have not been of significance in cultural practices and expression). In western societies, creativity implying a social group, rather than an individual authorship, is relatively new. More recently the terms creativity and innovation have been expanded to include many fields other than the aesthetic; and, more recently still, assimilated to technological, commercial, managerial practices, in self-inflating and commodified ways which make them virtually unusable.
All these terms have been significantly redefined in recent decades and in general the principal shift of direction is from the individual to the social and collective. This reflects the application of sociological and anthropological concepts to cultural fields, originally thought of primarily in aesthetic terms. It entails the shift from ‘culture’ as the sum of particular works, texts and objects which constitute an ideal order against which universal judgements of value can be made – what Matthew Arnold once called ‘the best that has been thought and said’ – to what Raymond Williams called the social definition of culture: ‘a particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behaviour’1: culture as ‘ways of life’. This has shifted the location of cultural creativity and expressions, from the domain of high culture to the terrain of the popular, collective and everyday life.
The redefinition also has to do with the transformation – one might even say the collectivisation or ‘massification’ – of social processes, which emerged in developed western societies at the end of the nineteenth/beginning of the twentieth centuries. This process has given us such terms as mass production, mass society, mass politics – and of course, mass media, mass communication and mass culture. It marked the reorganization of social production and consumption along more ‘Fordist’ lines, and was facilitated by the rise to dominance of the new mass technologies of culture. In his famous essay, ‘The Work of Art In The Age Of Mechanical Reproduction’, Walter Benjamin, anticipating the explosion in visual culture which was to come in the twentieth century, saw film as one of the earliest manifestations of this collective and technological transformation. He identified this not only in terms of the collective nature of cultural production and its relationship to its audiences but also in terms of the effects he predicted this would have in destroying what he called the ‘authenticity’ associated with the idea of ‘originality’ in art, the detaching of the work from, and the shattering of, tradition, and the destruction of the ‘aura’ of the individual artist and the individual work of art, still very much alive and kicking today. Theodor Adorno called these new technologies ‘the cultural industries’ but he intended to contrast these typical products of an ‘administered’, one-dimensional mass society with the critical and dialectical function which he thought could only be performed by the individual artist and the work of art. Though the tensions between high, mass and popular culture continue to resonate in cultural debates, few would find it possible these days not to regard these new media and technologies as potential sites of creativity and innovation. So when we say creativity, innovation or cultural expressions today, we must be conscious of the fact that we say them, as it were, after these great transformations in meaning, technologies and relationships have occurred.
Globalization is the most radically transformed and transforming of all the terms. Ever since the moment of European exploration and conquest at the end of the fifteenth century, (which Marx identified as the beginning of a struggle to make the globe ‘a world market’), there have been successive waves of what can only be called ‘globalizations’. And since they involved, in different forms, conquest and the crossing of frontiers, the clash of cultures and traditions and the exercise of power in the ‘conscription’ of traditional cultures to modernity, they still have something important to tell us about what happens to cultural processes when distances, societies and economies are brutally condensed. However, there is nothing to compare with the scale and depth of contemporary globalization. The time-space condensations, the new global division of labour, the speed of the flows of capital, investment, profits, goods, services, images, messages [Page xi]and stories, the driving power and trans-national reach of the new cultural industries, the emergence of a ‘global’ consumer market inter-connected with the permeation of cultural models, information, goods, symbols, stories and languages across frontiers, the collision when different cultures, traditions, religious systems and forms of life are convened in the same space and struggle for rights and recognition, and – the dark underside of globalization – the trans-national character of migration and the movement and displacements of peoples: these constitute, if not an absolutely new historical reality, then a momentous epochal shift in global relations, which leave no relationships untouched. One feature is the way culture has become part and parcel of, harnessed to and mediating economic, geo-political and social relationships; and consequently the way the exercise of creativity, innovation and cultural expression has become intensely related to and caught up with the ‘play’ of power. These new features of contemporary globalization have transformed the meanings of these concepts out of sight.
Globalization has therefore created new sites and arenas which, on the one hand, provide and enhance creative expressive possibilities, with groups and communities functioning as innovators in the role which the Introduction calls ‘social authorship’; at the same time – and for the same reason – they mark arenas of huge tension, resistance and difficulty. One powerful tendency in contemporary globalization follows from the permeation of cultural expressions in the flows across boundaries and frontiers. This is sometimes said to be a precondition of that ‘one world’ towards which globalization is supposed to be pointing us. It is sometimes argued that, in the post-colonial, free trade world, cultural globalization now operates on an ‘even playing field’; that the new global culture has no centre. This is to suggest that the one-way cultural flows characteristic of the imperial and colonizing moments have been surpassed.
The most powerful tendency is certainly towards a kind of one-directional cultural homogenization, powered by trans-national flows, the cultural industries of the developed world and the new digital means of communication. It tends to favour the transmission of standardised products, standardized western models and meanings, using standardized western technologies and reflecting standardized western forms of everyday life. This has the effect of eroding local particularities and differences, producing in their place a western-oriented ‘world culture’, which bears the strong imprint of its sources of origin. The interplay between new cultural expressions and the rise of new consumer markets are part and parcel of the same process.
The fact that cultural globalization has no one centre certainly does not mean that somehow cultural power has ceased to operate and that the power of the industrial and technological forces of modernity mediated by the western cultural industries have been suspended. The cultural field is not open or equal. It is not an ‘even playing field’. Contemporary globalization in all its aspects is a process of ‘combined and uneven development’ – ‘combined’ because it draws huge differences, disparities, historical divergences and temporalities together; ‘uneven’ because it creates greater disparities and inequalities – in resources, wealth, income, health, welfare, material well-being and cultural power – greater even than the differences and inequalities it claims to be surpassing. Paradoxically, however, creativity itself is not mal-distributed in this way. Those most marginalized in the global pecking order can, precisely, use their powers of creativity and innovation to describe and protest against the grim conditions of life these inequalities impose.
The cultural fields into which these global forces penetrate are not an open, unstructured terrain either. They are densely constructed of impacted traditions, aesthetic values, belief systems, ways of life and creative forms and expressions which have long histories and coherences of their own. Though often represented as fixed and unchanging, they have in fact been modified over time, evolving and appropriating new materials. The consequences of the homogenizing processes, like the economic processes they mirror, are neither uniform nor are their effects as easy to predict as the power and [Page xii]reach of their economies and technologies would suggest. They have generated powerful defensive responses and resistances – fundamentalist or progressive – in the development of which creativity and innovation are necessary ingredients.
In many places, the ‘debased’ cultural forms can and have been appropriated to local uses and meanings, borrowed, translated, indigenized and ‘vernacularized’ so as to express a very different kind of outlook and reality. To take just two examples: in what sense can the ‘soap opera’ about daily life, now a ubiquitous global popular form, any longer be said to be exclusively an ‘American’ form (though, in another perspective, it was indeed one of the great forms of American popular radio and television)? Or, to take another case: that great practitioner and innovator of reggae music, Bob Marley, used the most modern technological means of production (the sound system) and distribution (vinyl, the transistor radio) to make local rhythms ‘global’ and to transmit the styles, ways of life and troubles of Trench Town, a tiny, poverty-stricken and unknown urban community in the little-known island of Jamaica, familiar across the globe. Creative practitioners and innovators have been busy making the same forms and technologies speak of other different worlds.
Diasporas where different peoples and cultures meet, occupy the same space and are often obliged to struggle against discrimination and racialized marginalization are, paradoxically, highly productive spaces, creatively producing a variety of new cultural forms and expressions which mark creative cross-overs. By translating between cultural languages, they create genuinely novel forms which, because they are hybridized, cannot be reduced to the original cultural sources and traditions which went into their making.
Are these diasporas not also places where groups and communities can gradually lose touch with their authentic cultural origins and roots? This is never quite the zero-sum game which the beneficent term ‘creativity’ suggests. These crossings of cultural forms and models, the samplings and ‘versionings’, emerging where people are obliged to live together, struggle for space and speak across cultural languages are some of the most creative sites in the contemporary world. They may be the only places where displaced traditions – which in any event are not fixed forever in amber, but are more like what Paul Gilroy has called ‘the changing same’ – lose their absolute authority and inner certainties, and become more negotiable, translatable and open-weave. Perhaps this is indeed the nature of culture in modern global conditions: where that which seems unalterably fixed in the past, becomes an opening to the future. All displacements of peoples and migrations, as they say, ‘free’ or forced, always involve gains and losses. Indeed, to take the paradox one step further, the finding of significant form and voice for this sense of ‘loss’ and the ways memory intervenes to give it shape, are some of the most powerful sources of contemporary creative cultural expression. The terms creativity and innovation may soften or disguise the degree to which, in cultural collision of this kind, questions of identity, recognition and power are always ‘in play’.
In this globalization ‘game’ there are no absolute winners and losers. Neither homogenization nor diversity can capture its contradictory movement and character. We lose everything if we force the contemporary forms of creativity and cultural expression into one or other end-point of this binary schema. Cultural globalization, like other aspects of the process, is profoundly and unalterably contradictory. We must continue to ‘speak it’ in this way. This volume of essays, in all their diversity of contents and theoretical perspectives, demonstrates the rich value of this paradoxical, oxymoronic approach.Note
1 Williams, Raymond (1945) The Long Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
The Cultures and Globalization Series has relied on the support, advice and contributions of numerous individuals and organizations. We would endeavour to acknowledge and thank all of them here. In the ultimate analysis, however, the co-editors alone are responsible for this final version of the publication.International Advisory Board
[Page xiv]Additional SupportText Boxes
- Hugo Achugar (Uruguay)
- Arjun Appadurai (India/USA)
- Benjamin Barber (USA)
- Hilary Beckles (Barbados)
- Tony Bennett (United Kingdom)
- Craig Calhoun (USA)
- Georges Corm (Lebanon)
- Mamadou Diouf (Senegal)
- Yehuda Elkana (Israel/Hungary)
- Yilmaz Esmer (Turkey)
- Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (Japan/USA)
- Mike Featherstone (United Kingdom)
- Anthony Giddens (United Kingdom)
- Nathan Gardels (USA)
- Salvador Giner (Spain)
- Xavier Greffe (France)
- Stuart Hall (Jamaica/United Kingdom)
- Seung-Mi Han (Korea)
- David Held (United Kingdom)
- Vjeran Katunaric (Croatia)
- Nobuku Kawashima (Japan)
- Arun Mahizhnan (Singapore)
- Achille Mbembe (Cameroon/South Africa)
- Candido Mendes (Brazil)
- Catherine Murray (Canada)
- Sven Nilsson (Sweden)
- Walter Santagata (Italy)
- James Allen Smith (USA)
- Prince Hassan bin Talal (Jordan)
- David Throsby (Australia)
- Jean-Pierre Warnier (France)
- Margaret Wyszomirski (USA)
- Yunxiang Yan (China/USA)
- George Yudice (USA)
Karin Becker, Meghan Corroon, Todd Lester, Mailyn Machado, Ricardo Mbarkho, Peter Moertenbock, Helge Mooshammer, Ari Seligmann, Cylena Simonds, Nicole Vazquez, Indrasen Vencatachellum, Tereza WagnerResearch Coordination for Indicator Suites
Meghan Corroon, Michael Hoelscher and Tia MoritaResearch Assistance
Antje Groneberg, Manar Nidah, Simon Scholtz, Nicole Vazquez, Elise Youn, Filip Zielinski, David ZimmerDesign and Production
In this issue, indicator suites were designed by students and alumni of the Design and Media Arts programme (D|MA) at UCLA under the direction of Willem Henri Lucas
- Christo Allegra, D|MA MFA 2010
- Jono Brandell, D|MA 2008
- Levi Brooks, D|MA 2006
- Luca de Sanctis Barton, D|MA 2008
- Leon Hong, D|MA 2007
- JJ Kaye, D|MA 2007
- Fei Liu, D|MA 2008
- Donnie Luu, D|MA, 2008
- Camile Orillaneda, D|MA 2008
- Mylinh Trieu Nguyen, D|MA 2007
- Ryan Weafer, D|MA 2006
Cover, Chapter and Divider Artwork
- Sheriah Altobar, D|MA
- Vincent Cordero, D|MA
- Jason Hanakeawe, D|MA
- Lindsay Harvey, D|MA
- Derek Heath, D|MA
- Alok Jethanandani, D|MA
- Tiffany Payakniti, D|MA
- Stephen Sulistiawan, D|MA
- Christopher Tuyay, D|MA
- Alyssa Wang, D|MA
- Katherine Wu, D|MA
- Emilia Birlo
- with input provided by Paul Kästner, Rudolf M. Anheier, Manual Birlo and Stella Birlo
[Page xv]Financial Support
- Jocelyn Guihama
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the following institutions:
- Asia Research Fund
- The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation
- Compagnia di San Paolo
- The Fritt Ord Institute
- The London School of Economics
- The Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development
- The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- Swedish International Development Agency
- UCLA International Institute
- UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture
- UCLA School of Public Affairs
We would also like to acknowledge the support of:
- Henrietta Moore and the faculty and staff of the Centre for the Study of Global Governance at the London School of Economics;
- Stuart Cunningham and the entire faculty and staff of the Australia Research Council Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation;
- Sarah Gardner and Diane Dodd of the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies;
- Ursula Fischer of the Centre for Social Investment at Heidelberg University;
- the University of Turin.
Special thanks are owed to individuals and institutions in Sweden, who made it possible for the co-editors to organize the authors' meeting for this volume at the Museum of World Culture in Gothenburg on 11–12 April 2009. On 10 April, the Series was presented at a public symposium on ‘Cultural Policy and Globalization’ held at the Museum, where participants were welcomed by Dr Lars Nordström, President of the Cultural Committee of the Västra Götaland region, where the city is located. The idea of such a symposium-cum-authors' meeting was first discussed with Anna Thelin, then working at the Museum, at the 2008 Gothenburg Book Fair, where the Series was presented under the aegis of the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA); the idea came to fruition thanks to the support of the Director of the Museum of World Culture, Margareta Alin, David Karlsson, then Secretary of Sweden's Commission on Cultural Policy, and Mats Rolén of the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation. Catharina Bergil and Anna Thelin expertly coordinated the Museum's support team which provided flawless logistics.
Finally, the co-editors are most grateful to Tereza Wagner, Senior Programme Specialist in the Culture Sector of UNESCO. Formerly responsible for that organization's activities in favour of artistic creation, she played a key role in helping us identify authors from around the world as contributors to the present volume (see also her text box, 20.1).
Huda Smitshuijzen AbiFarès is founder and director of the Khatt Foundation, Center for Arabic Typography. She is the author of Arabic Typography: A Comprehensive Sourcebook, Experimental Arabic Type, Typographic Matchmaking, and many other articles on multilingual communication in the Middle East. She holds degrees in graphic design from Yale University's School of Art and the Rhode Island School of Design and specializes in bilingual typographic research and design. She has taught typography and graphic design at the American University of Beirut. She was chair of the Visual Communication Department for three years at the American University in Dubai where she is Associate Professor of Graphic Design.
Helmut Anheier (PhD Yale University, 1986) is Professor of Sociology at UCLA and Heidelberg University. He is the academic director of the Center for Social Investment at Heidelberg University, and director of the Center for Civil Society at UCLA's School of Public Affairs. From 1998 to 2002 he was the founding director of the Centre for Civil Society at the London School of Economics, where he now holds the title of Centennial Professor. Prior to this he was a senior research associate at the Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies, and Professor of Sociology at Rutgers University. Before embarking on an academic career, Dr Anheier served as a Social Affairs Officer with the United Nations.
Rustom Bharucha is an independent writer, director, and cultural critic. His publications include Theatre and the World; The Question of Faith; In the Name of the Secular; The Politics of Cultural Practice; Rajasthan: An Oral History and Another Asia. He is a leading authority on interculturalism and has been a consultant for the arts service organization Leveraging Investments in Creativity, New York, sponsored by the Ford Foundation. He was on the consultancy team of a report on cultural diversity commissioned by the Arts Council in Ireland. In India, he is the Project Director of Arna-Jharna: The Desert Museum of Rajasthan, committed to the traditional knowledge systems of the desert.
Karin Becker is Professor of Media and Communication Studies at Stockholm University and was previously a professor at the National College of Art, Craft and Design (Konstfack) in Stockholm. She began her career in the mass communication and journalism programme at the University of Iowa, specializing in documentary photography and photojournalism, and moved to Sweden in the mid-1980s. Her research focuses on cultural histories and contemporary contexts of visual media practices, in the press, in museums, in private settings and in ethnographic research. Her English publications include Dorothea Lange and the Documentary Tradition (Louisiana State University Press, 1980), Picturing Politics: Visual and Textual Formations of Modernity in the Swedish Press (JMK/Stockholm University, 2000), as well as numerous journal articles and anthology contributions, and she is co-author of Consuming Media: Communication, Shopping and Everyday Life (Berg, 2007).
Enrico Bertacchini is a researcher at the Department of Economics ‘Cognetti de Martiis’ at the University of Torino and a fellow of the EBLA Center and NEXA Center for Internet and Society. His main research interests are cultural economics, law and economics and economic issues concerning intellectual property rights and knowledge [Page xvii]sharing, with a particular focus on biodiversity and biotechnologies. He has recently worked as an external advisor for the Italian Ministry of Culture on the report on the role and impact of creative and cultural industries on the Italian economy released in May 2008.
Paul Brickhill has worked continuously for twenty-eight years in African arts and culture. In 1997, he established Book Café, Zimbabwe's largest performing arts programme, and founded African Synergy in 2002 which focused on intra-African cultural exchange and media. He also co-founded Luck Street Blues in 1995, a jazz band in Zimbabwe, playing tenor sax. He has worked at a senior policy level in book policy in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique. He has co-authored a 13-country study on African textbook provision (published 2005) and has written about 250 features on the performing arts and publishing. He helped set up the Zimbabwe International Book Fair 1990, the African Publishers' Network (37 countries) in 1992, and the Pan-African Booksellers Association (14 countries) in 1997.
Clayton Campbell is Artistic Director of the 18th Street Arts Center, Santa Monica; Artist Residency Advisor at United States Artists; Consultant to the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Residency Center; and a past President of the International Network of Residential Arts Centers (Res Artis). He has curated and organized over 250 artist residency projects within 26 countries. A visual artist himself, he also writes extensively for a range of arts journals. In 2002 he was named Chevalier de Arts et des Lettres by the French government for his work in international cultural exchange.
Joni Maya Cherbo is an independent educator, writer and researcher who specializes in the arts and cultural policy. Dr Cherbo has had teaching positions at Hunter College, Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, the State University of New York and Purchase, and New York University, Arts Administration Program. She was the research director for the American Assembly's think tank meeting, ‘The Arts and the Public Purpose’, developed the National Arts Policy Roundtable for Americans for the Arts, and is currently engaged in an initiative to enhance international cultural diplomacy efforts.
Meghan Corroon is the research coordinator for The Cultures and Globalization Series. She recently obtained her Master's degree in urban planning from the University of California, Los Angeles, and is pursuing a second Master's degree in public health. Her research and professional interests are focused on global city networks and the effects of urbanization on health outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. She has worked on several international development projects for both USAID and the World Bank. Additionally, she has conducted research for organizations such as WaterAid UK, the International Medical Corps, and the International Council for Science.
Nancy Duxbury is an adjunct professor in the School of Communication at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. From 2005 to 2008 she was the executive director of the Centre of Expertise on Culture and Communities, a three-year research project on cultural infrastructure in Canadian cities and communities. Prior to that, she was Director of Research of the Creative City Network of Canada, and Cultural Planning Analyst at the City of Vancouver's Office of Cultural Affairs. Her research has focused on cultural infrastructure, cultural policy, cultural indicators, the involvement of municipalities in cultural development, and book publishing. She is the lead author of Under Construction: The State of Cultural Infrastructure in Canada, and editor of Making Connections: Culture and Social Cohesion in the New Millennium (2005).
[Page xviii]Laurent Gayer is a research fellow at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), attached to the Centre D'études et de Recherches Administratives et Politiques de Picardie (CURAPP), and a research associate at the Centre D'études de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud, Paris. He recently co-edited, with Christophe Jaffrelot, Milices Armées d'Asie du Sud: Privatisation de la Violence et Implication des Etats.
Stefan Helgesson is a research fellow in the Department of Literature at Uppsala University. He has published widely on South African literature, lusophone literature, postcolonial theory and theories of world literature. He is the author of Writing in Crisis: History and Ethics in Gordimer, Ndebele and Coetzee (UKZN Press, 2004) and the editor of Volume 4 of Literary History: Towards a Global Perspective. His latest book, Transnationalism in Southern African Literature (Routledge), appeared in 2009.
Michael Hoelscher is a lecturer in the Department of Sociology, Heidelberg University, Germany, and senior research fellow at the University of Oxford. His main fields of interest are cultural sociology, economic sociology, globalization processes, especially European integration, higher education and quantitative comparative methods. His publications include Wirtschaftskulturen in der Erweiterten EU (2006).
Yudhishthir Raj Isar is Professsor of Cultural Policy Studies at the American University of Paris and Maitre de Conférences at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po). An independent cultural advisor and public speaker, he also serves on the boards of several international cultural institutions and writes on a range of cultural topics. From 2004 to 2008 he was president of the international association Culture Action Europe. Previously, at UNESCO, he was Executive Secretary of the World Commission on Culture and Development; in 1986–87 he was Executive Director of The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Christophe Jaffrelot is director of CERI (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales) at Sciences Po (Paris), and research director at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). He teaches South Asian politics to doctoral students at Sciences Po. His most recent publications include The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics, 1925 to 1990s; India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India; and Dr. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. He has also edited Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation; Hindu Nationalism: A Reader and, with Alain Dieckhoff, Revisiting Nationalism._
Dragan Klaic is a theatre scholar and cultural analyst. He serves as a permanent fellow of the Felix Meritis Foundation in Amsterdam and is a professor of the arts and cultural policy at the University of Leiden's Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts. He lectures widely at various universities, speaks at conferences and symposia, and serves as advisor, editor, researcher and trainer. His fields of engagement are contemporary performing arts, European cultural policies, strategies of cultural development and international cultural cooperation, interculturalism and cultural memory.
Lily Kong is a professor of geography at the National University of Singapore. She is a social and cultural geographer who has published widely in a number of areas, ranging from cultural policy and creative economies, to music, religion, place histories and national identities. Her work has focused on the Asian cities of Singapore, Shanghai, [Page xix]Hong Kong, Taipei and Beijing. Her recent books include: Creative Cities, Creative Economies: Asian-European Perspectives; Singapore Hawker Centres; Landscapes: Ways of Imagining the World; and The Politics of Landscapes in Singapore: Constructions of ‘Nation’
Diana Leat is a visiting professor at the Centre for Charity Effectiveness, Cass Business School, London, and a visiting research fellow at UCLA. Diana has held research and teaching posts at a number of universities and research centres in the UK, the USA and Australia. Most recently, Diana has been Research and Development Director at the Carnegie UK Trust. She is the author of over 100 articles and books on the non-profit sector and social policy. She is a trustee of the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund in the UK.
Todd Lester is the founding director of freeDimensional. He is currently a fellow at the Gerhart Center for Philanthropy and Civic Engagement in Cairo and is a candidate for a doctorate on public and urban policy at the New School for Social Research from which he received a Film Production Diploma. He is a project leader at the World Policy Institute and a member of both the 21st Century Trust and Think Tank 30. He serves on the international advisory committee of the Club of Rome and was recently named an Architect of the Future by the Waldzell Institute. Todd is an adjunct instructor in media studies at the New School.
Willem Henri Lucas (designer) is a professor in the Design I Media Arts department at UCLA. He studied at the Academy of Visual Arts in Arnhem, and did his post academic studies at the Sandberg Institute (Rietveld Academy), in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He works for clients mostly based in the fields of Culture and the Arts. From 1990 to 2002 he served as a professor and chair of the Utrecht School of the Arts' graphic design department. He won several ‘Best Book’ awards in the Netherlands and the US.
Mailyn Machado is an art critic, curator and academic. She has a degree in Art History from the University of Havana, Cuba and was also awarded a Diploma in Art Criticism by the University of Girona, Spain. She currently teaches Art Theory at the University of Havana and is the editor of the Cuban magazine La Gaceta de Cuba. Her essays have appeared in many national and international publications.
Malvika Maheshwari is a doctoral candidate in Political Science at CERI, Sciences Po, Paris working on the Hindutva movement and freedom of expression of artists in India.
Ricardo Mbarkho was trained at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and Ecole Supérieure d'Etudes Cinématographiques, Paris and Institut Supérieur des Beaux-Arts, Beirut. He also completed an exchange study program at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. He currently lives in Lebanon and teaches art, video, and new media at the Académie Libanaise des Beaux-Arts, Beirut.
Peter Mörtenböck is Professor of Visual Culture at the Vienna University of Technology and visiting fellow at Goldsmiths College, University of London. His recent practical and theoretical work has focused on spatial conflict, urban informality, models of networking and relational theories. He is author/co-editor of Die virtuelle Dimension: Architektur, Subjektivität und Cyberspace (2001), Visuelle Kultur: Körper-Räume-Medien (2003) and Networked Cultures: Parallel Architectures and the Politics of Space (2008).
[Page xx]Helge Mooshammer is director of the research project ‘Relational Architecture’ at the Vienna University of Technology. He teaches at Goldsmiths, University of London and has been research fellow at the International Research Centre for Cultural Studies (IFK), Vienna, in 2008. His research and writing have focused on relational architecture, sexuality and urban culture. He has authored Cruising: Architektur, Psychoanalyse und Queer Cultures (2005) and co-edited Visuelle Kultur: Körper-Räume-Medien (2003) and Networked Cultures: Parallel Architectures and the Politics of Space (2008). With Peter Mörtenböck he initiated the ‘Networked Cultures’ project, an international research platform on the potential of translocally networked spatial practices, based at Goldsmiths College (http://www.networkedcultures.org).
Gerardo Mosquera is a freelance curator and art critic based in Havana; Adjunct Curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York; advisor at the Rijksakademie van Beeldenden Kunsten, Amsterdam; and member of the advisory board of several art journals. He was a founder of the Havana Biennial, and has curated many celebrated exhibitions. Author of numerous books and texts on contemporary art and art theory, Mosquera edited Beyond the Fantastic: Contemporary Art Criticism from Latin America and co-edited Over Here: International Perspectives on Art and Culture.
Catherine Murray is a professor in the School of Communication, co-director of the Centre for Policy Studies on Culture and Communities, and an associate of the Masters of Public Policy Program at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada. Her research interests include cultural participation and creative labour, cultural infrastructure and creative cities, cultural industries and especially broadcast policy, communication rights and global trade, and research design in policy evaluation. Dr Murray is a co-author of From Economy to Ecology: A Policy Framework for Creative Labour; Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Media in BC; and Researching Audiences.
Rasoul Nejadmehr has a PhD in the philosophy of education from the University of London. He is an independent researcher, bringing together philosophical research and studies in cultural and educational policies. He is the author of Education, Science and Truth, published as part of Routledge's International Studies in the Philosophy of Education. He is a member of the Swedish Committee of the Inquiry on Cultural Policy, commissioned by the Swedish government to survey Swedish cultural policy. He is also a board member of University College Dance, Stockholm.
Keith Nurse is the director of the Shridath Ramphal Centre of the University of the West Indies, after having served at the Institute of International Relations as academic coordinator of the postgraduate diploma in Arts and Cultural Enterprise Management. He has taught at the Institute of Business and the Department of Government, UWI, and the Institute for International Development and Co-operation, University of Ottawa. He has published widely on the trade policy and global political economy of the clothing, banana, tourism, copyright and cultural/creative industries; and on the impact of global restructuring on migration and diaspora, HIV/AIDS and security, and youth, gender and poverty. He is the author of Festival Tourism in the Caribbean and The Caribbean Music Industry.
Annie Paul works at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, where she heads the publications section of the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES). She is also a founding editor of the journal Small Axe (Indiana University Press). Paul is the recipient of a grant from the Prince Claus Fund [Page xxi](Netherlands) in support of her book project, Suitable Subjects: Visual Art and Popular Culture in Postcolonial Jamaica.
Walter Santagata is Professor of Cultural Economics at the University of Turin, Italy. He also serves as chairman of the Commission on Creative Industries of the Italian Ministry of Culture. His recent books include: La Fabbrica della Cultura (Il Mulino, Bologna, 2007) and La Mode, une économie de la créativité (La Documentation Française, Paris, 2005).
Ivani Santana is a dancer and choreographer working in the field of dance-technology. She is a professor in the department of dance at the Federal University of Bahia. She has created and directed the Group of Technological Poetics in Dance since its inception in 2004. She is the author of Corpo Aberto: Cunniningham, Dança e Novas Tecnologias [Open Body: Cunningham, Dance and New Technologies], and Dança na Cultura Digital [Dance in the Digital Culture], and has written many articles for international journals. She was awarded the UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts – New Technologies 2006, as well as the artistic residence at the Centre Chorégraphique National, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Ari Seligmann is an architecture critic engaged in broadening perspectives on global architecture and investigating the impacts of globalization on the built environment. He has participated in various international conferences and his work has been published in a range of journals. He has taught at the University of California, Berkeley; Woodbury University, the Otis College of Art and Design; and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as coordinator for the Laboratory for Cross-Cultural Studies in Architecture and Urban Design at UCLA, and currently is a lecturer at Monash University, Australia.
Cylena Simonds is an independent curator and writer engaged in the politics of representation and the representation of politics, with special interests in moving image media, diasporic cultures and conditions of practice in developing countries. From 2004–2008 she was the exhibitions curator at Iniva, heading their on-site and touring exhibition programmes, as well as programming off-site public art projects. Her latest project was States of Exchange: Artists from Cuba, which was the first exhibition of contemporary art from Cuba to be shown in the UK since 1997.
Maruška Svašek is senior lecturer in social anthropology at Queen's University, Belfast. Her principal research interests are in emotions, migration, art and material culture. Her current research concerns experiences of belonging and non-belonging amongst migrants in Northern Ireland. She is associate editor of the journals Focaal, European Journal of Anthropology and Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. Her major publications include Anthropology, Art and Cultural Production; and the edited volumes Postsocialism: Politics and Emotions in Central and Eastern Europe and Mixed Emotion Anthropological Studies of Feeling (with K. Milton). Svašek is coinitiator and director of the Cultural Dynamics and Emotions Network.
Gilane Tawadros is a curator and writer. She was joint chief executive of Rivington Place and the founding director of the Institute of International Visual Arts, a contemporary visual arts agency in London. She has curated numerous exhibitions and written extensively on contemporary art. Recent titles include Changing States: Contemporary Art and Ideas in an Era of Globalisation and Life is More Important Than[Page xxii]Art. She is currently president of the International Foundation of Manifesta (Amsterdam) and a board member of the Forum for African Arts (New York), Photoworks (Brighton) and A Foundation (London).
Julie Thomas (MA Harvard, MLitt Trinity College Dublin, PhD University of London) is Associate Professor of Global Communications at the American University of Paris, where she teaches courses on fashion, material culture, the museum as medium, and colour. She writes on colour in cultural space, digital interactivity (guest editor with Claudia Roda of the special issue on ‘Attention Aware Systems’ of Computers in Human Behaviour), the museum and cultural identity, and in 2004 organized the international conference Mediating Fashion, Mediating Paris at the American University of Paris.
Eugenio Tisselli is a computer scientist and digital artist. He is a teacher and co-director of the Master's in Digital Arts at the Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. He has contributed an on-line seminar about digital interactivity to the UNESCO DigiArts programme. He has held the position of associate researcher at the Sony Computer Science Lab in Paris. His artistic work has been featured in multiple exhibitions and festivals throughout the world; it is available at http://www.motorhueso.net. He is the developer of Antoni Abad's http://zexe.net project, in which digital technologies and networks are used to give a voice to marginalized communities.
Mo Tomaney originally trained in fashion textiles at St Martins School of Art; she has over twenty years' experience as a successful fashion and textile designer and has an MSc in social anthropology. Consultancies in South Asia and the Far East led to an awareness of labour standards in the fashion supply chain. She has held full-time positions at The Body Shop, where she was a fair trade development manager, and Levi's, where she worked on fabric development and sourcing. She is currently a research fellow in ethical issues and fair trade at Central St Martins and a senior lecturer at UCCA (Epsom) where she runs an MA in ethical fashion.
Jason Toynbee is senior lecturer in media studies in the sociology department of the faculty of social science at the The Open University, UK. His research interests centre on problems of creativity and authorship in the media, with a special focus on copyright and cultural production. Much of his work takes popular music as a case in point. Among Jason's books are Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World? (Polity, 2007); Analysing Media Texts (with Marie Gillespie, Open University Press, 2006); and Making Popular Music: Musicians, Institutions and Creativity (Arnold, 2000).
Peter Tschmuck is associate professor at the Institute of Culture Management and Culture Studies at the University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna. He also teaches courses at the University of Economics and Business Administration in Vienna, the University of Innsbruck, the University of Klagenfurt, and the Donau-University of Krems. His research focuses on the structure and processes in cultural institutions, arts management, the economics of the music industry, and cultural statistics.
Nicole Vazquez is a 2009 graduate of UCLA's School of Public Affairs, with Master's degrees in social welfare and public policy with a concentration in international policy. She worked as a graduate student researcher for the school's Center for Civil Society during her tenure at UCLA, conducting research, writing, and editing for Center publications and reports. She intends to apply a global framework to civic engagement and [Page xxiii]community development work in Los Angeles by addressing social justice issues that disproportionately affect communities of colour.
Indrasen Vencatachellum was born in Mauritius in 1946, completed his Master of Arts at the Sorbonne in Paris, and since 1976 has been involved in international cooperation for cultural development. He was formerly in charge of UNESCO's Division of Cultural Expressions and Creative Industries. In 1990 he launched the ‘Plan of Action for Crafts Development in the World’, and in 1995 the ‘Design 21’ programme; he was also managing editor for the practical guide entitled Designers Meet Artisans.
Harold L. Vogel is the author of Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis and of the companion volume, Travel Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis. He was ranked as top entertainment industry analyst for ten years by Institutional Investor magazine, was the senior entertainment industry analyst at Merrill Lynch for seventeen years, and earned his PhD in economics from the University of London. His forthcoming book is Financial Market Bubbles and Crashes.
Zala Volcic is a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Critical and Cultural Studies, University of Queensland, Australia. In her research she focuses on international communication, media and cultural identities. Her recently published articles include ‘Blaming the media: Serbian narratives of national(ist) identity’, in Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies; ‘Yugo-nostalgia: cultural memory and media in the former Yugoslavia’, in Critical Studies in Media Communication; and ‘Technological developments in Central-Eastern Europe: A case-study of a computer literacy project in Slovenia’ (with Karmen Erjavec), in Information Communication & Society.
Tereza Wagner is a senior programme specialist at UNESCO dealing with arts and creative issues. Her graduate and undergraduate degrees are from Paris V University, France, including a doctorate in the anthropology of contemporary arts. She is currently in charge of coordinating events within the Cultural sector of UNESCO. She was part of the team that initiated the UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts and helped develop the DigiArts UNESCO Knowledge Portal (http://portal.unesco.org/digiarts), a web-based initiative which aims to promote ICT creative tools among young people at school level and disseminate on-line teaching and information on digital creation world wide. She has also published articles on African cinema, African contemporary arts and arts education.
Christopher Waterman is an anthropologist and musician who specializes in the study of music and popular culture in Africa and the Americas. He is currently dean of the School of the Arts and Architecture at UCLA, which comprises six degree-granting departments: Architecture and Urban Design; Art; Design| Media Arts; Ethnomusicology; Music; and World Arts and Cultures. The school also houses the UCLA Herb Alpert School of Music (including the departments of ethnomusicology, music and musicology); five research centres (the Art | Global Health Center, the Art | Sci Center, the Center for Intercultural Performance, the Experiential Technologies Center and the Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts); and three internationally acclaimed public arts presenters (the Fowler Museum, the Hammer Museum, and UCLA Live).
List of Boxes, Figures, Photos, Plates and Tables[Page xxiv]Boxes
- 1.1 Cultures and globalization: the knowledge gap 2
- 2.1 Digital arts and the cultural expression of young people, Indrasen Vencatachellum44
- 2.2 Inspiring innovation and creativity in the workplace, Nicole Vazquez45
- 6.1 Proxy servers: contemporary art practices in service economies, Cylena Simonds84
- 13.1 Culture workers in distress, Todd Lester155
- 15.1 Kumamoto's Artpolis: mediating innovative architecture and creative cultural expression, Ari Seligmann173
- 17.1Networked Cultures, Peter Mörtenböck and Helge Mooshammer198
- 18.1 Méduse Coopérative, Quebec City, Canada and Arts House, Melbourne, Australia 204
- 18.2 The Artscape Wychwood Barns, Toronto, Canada and The Waag Society, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 205
- 18.3 TOHU, Montreal, Canada and Haida Heritage Centre at Kaay Llnagaay, Haida Gwaii, Canada 207
- 18.4 Art in the underground, Karin Becker209
- 19.1Manga, graphic novels and the album, Meghan Corroon222
- 20.1 Science and art in the digital era, Tereza Wagner232
- 20.2 Art and nanotechnology, Nicole Vazquez233
- 23.1 From mouth to mouth, from hand to hand, from computer to computer, Mailyn Machado268
- 23.2 A different kind of media creativity in the Lebanon, Ricardo Mbarkho270
List of Colour Plates
- 12.1 Spread from the book Sabaa+7 [Seven+7] 133
- 12.2 Spread from the book Al-Kharbasha [Doodles] 133
- 12.3 Spread from the book Sabaa+7 [Seven+7] 134
- 12.4 Spread from the book Qalb Al Madina [Heart of the City] 134 [Page xxv]
- 12.5 Furniture pieces designed by Nada Debs 135
- 12.6 Arabic Bling-Bling jewellery design playing with Arabic vernacular text and handwritten lettering designed by Nadine Kanso 136
- 12.7 Three handbags from Sarah's Bag with reference to Arab vernacular visual culture and icons 138
- 12.8 Accessories from Pink Sushi using a mix of Arabic vernacular text, lettering and images. 139
- 12.9 ‘Salon’ installation Africa Remix, Hayward Gallery 140
- 12.10 Left ‘Ahmed Lightin Up’ 2000. Right: ‘Ilham’ 2000 140
- 12.11 Two examples of Dia Diwan website's newsletter displaying a range of products and topics 143
- 12.12 Six examples from the winning designs of the ‘Project Muslaq’ Middle Eastern design competition, launched in June 2008 for the special edition of the Khatt Design Collection of vinyl wall stickers (for interior decoration) 144
- 12.13 Cover of Typographic Matchmaking, written and designed by Huda Smitshuijzen AbiFarès 145
- 12.14 Three different spreads from Typographic Matchmaking, written and designed by Huda Smitshuijzen AbiFarès 145
- 13.1 Issa Nyaphaga with hands crossed in front of his face, Angele Etoundi Essamba 156
- 3.1Apolitical, 2001, Wilfredo Prieto. 287
- 4.1The Visitor, from The Benin Project, 2007, Uriel Orlow. 287
- 4.2The Visitor, installation view, Friborg. 288
- 4.3Perdre sa Salive (Wasting One's Spittle), 1994, Shen Yuan. 288
- 4.4Transmission, 1990, Hamad Butt. 289
- 5.1Hidden Agendas, 2008, painting, George Hughes. 289
- 5.2Trophy Seekers, 2008, painting, George Hughes. 290
- 5.3Mother Earth, 2008, painting, George Hughes. 290
- 5.4 A participant from the School of Anthropological Studies in Belfast with the school flag, showing the image in Alder's book that inspired the flag design. 291
- 5.5 Fante Flag, 2009, Marushka Svasek. 291
- 5.6 George Hughes during the What You Perceive is What You Conceive performance in Belfast, 2007. 292
- 10.1 A scene from the ‘subterranean’ satire Great Escape performed at the Book Café: the two central characters decide to ‘tunnel their way out’ of Zimbabwe… 292
- 10.2 Flyer with Kaya logo, Book Café. 293
- 10.3Barsiranai traditional dance group, Book Café. 293
- 10.4 African jazz/blues guitarist David Ndoro improvises, Book Café. 294
- 14.1 Mostar, where the statues of Bruce Lee were unveiled in 2005. Mostar is also famous for its historic bridge which was destroyed by the Croatian army in 1993 and since rebuilt. Photo: Zala Volcic, 2008. 294 [Page xxvi]
- 18.1 The historic Wychwood TTC streetcar repairs barn in Toronto before transformation into the Artscape Wychwood Barns. Photo: Edward Burtynsky. 295
- 18.2 Plan for the Artscape Wychwood Barns, opened 2008. Photo: Nancy Duxbury. 295
- 20.1Versus, 2005, telematic dance, Ivani Santana. 296
- 20.2Versus, 2005, Ivani Santana. 297
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Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://lysander.sourceoecd.org/vl=5862178/cl=27/nw=1/rpsv/factbook/070101.htmDiversityInstitutions1 Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (2005, January 18) The Civil Society Sector at a Glance: Series. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://www.jhu.edu/~cnp/PDF/argentina.pdf2, 4 & 6 Union of International Associations (ed.) (2007) Yearbook of International Organizations (2005–2007), Vol. 5. Munich: K.G. Saur Verlag Gmbh & Company.3 Eurostat (2007) Cultural Statistics. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-77-07-296/EN/KS-77-07-296-EN.PDF5 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2007) Consultative Committees, International Commissions and Intergovernmental Councils. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3576&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlUNESCO (2007) International Directory of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001497/149755m.pdfUNESCO (n.d.) UNESCO specialized networks. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3975&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlUNESCO (2007) List of NGOs maintaining official relations with UNESCO. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://erc.unesco.org/ong/ONGlist_p.asp?language=EUNESCO (2008) List of foundations and similar institutions maintaining official relations with UNESCO. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://erc.unesco.org/ong/ONGlist_p.asp?language=EUNESCO (n.d.) UNESCO goodwill ambassadors. Retrieved December 21, 2008, from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=4053&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlUNESCO (n.d.) 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Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/soziologie/arbeitsbereiche/makrosoziologie/arbeitspapiere/pdf/BSSE_17_Transnationales_linguistisches_Kapital_der_B__rger.pdf(–2008) Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory Analysis. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/2007/RAND_OP206.pdf, , , and (–McKinsey and Company (2007) Women Matter: Gender Diversity, a Corporate Performance Driver Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/paris/home/womenmatter/pdfs/Women_matter_oct2007_english.pdf–McKinsey and Company (2008) Women Matter 2: Female Leadership, a Competitive Edge for the Future. Retrieved January 14, 2009, from http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/paris/home/womenmatter/pdfs/women_matter_oct2008_english.pdf–2006) Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Making It Work. Zagreb, Croatia: Institute for International Relations.and (Membership in Organizations1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6 World Values Survey (2006) World and European Values Survey (four wave integrated data file). Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/Digest: Membership in Organizations–2007) Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(–1994) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton,(–World Values Survey (2006) World and European Values Survey (four wave integrated data file). Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/Practices & ParticipationEvents1 Frankfurt Book Fair (2002–2007) Facts and figures. Retrieved from http://www.buchmesse.de/de/fbm/allgemeines/facts_igures/2 London Book Fair (2009) LBF 2008 show visitor statistics. Retrieved from http://www.londonbookfair.co.uk/page.cfm/Link=27/t=m3 Feria Internacional del Libro de Buenos Aires (n.d.) 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Retrieved from http://www.shcontemporary.info/sh_internal.asp?m=100&l=2&a=&ma=283&c=3659&p=100Best9 London Development Agency (2003) The Economic Impact of the Notting Hill Carnival. Retrieved from http://www.lda.gov.uk/Digest: Events–Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Planning & Development in Trinidad & Tobago (2004) Carnival Report 2004. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from http://www.cso.gov.tt/files/cms/Carnival_Report_2004.pdf–Edinburgh Festival Fringe (2008) Fringe Facts: Fascinating Fringe Facts 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www.edfringe.com/area.html?r_menu=global&id=48–EIF (Edinburgh International Festival Society) (2008) Annual Review 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www.eif.co.uk/files/editor/documents/EIFAnnualReview2008.pdf–2008a) ‘Fringe ticket sales slump for first time in eight years’, The Scotsman. 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Retrieved from http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-portal/kulturindikatoren_2008.pdf(7 Love Parade (2006) Retrieved December 22, 2007, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_ParadeDigest: Places–Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley (n.d.) Measuring Progress Toward a Vibrant Silicon Valley. San José, CA: Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley.–2002) The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.(–London: A Cultural Audit. London: London Development Agency. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.lda.gov.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.2538(n.d.)–Economics Division Ministry of Trade and Industry (2003) Economic Contributions of Singapore's Creative Industries. Singapore: Economic Survey of Singapore., , and–2006) Cultural Vitality in Communities. Interpretation and Indicators. Washington, DC: Urban Institute., and (–1996, February 22) ‘The exaggerated death of geography: Localised learning, innovation and uneven development’, Financial Times. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from http://www.utoronto.ca/onris/research_review/WorkingPapers/WorkingDOCS/Working01/Morgan01_Death.pdf(–2003) Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B. C. to 1950. New York: HarperCollins.(–1991) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(–2006) ‘Creative cities: Conceptual issues and policy questions’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28(1): 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/juaf.2006.28.issue-1(–2008) Cultural Economy: Retrospect and Prospect. In H.Anheier & Y.Isar (eds.), Cultures and Globalization 2: The Cultural Economy (Vol. 2, pp. 307–323). London: SAGE Publications.(–2000) Philosophie des Geldes ((new ed.). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Migration1 IOM (International Organization for Migration) (2005) World Migration 2005 Report. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.iom.int//DOCUMENTS/PUBLICATION/wmr_sec03.pdfUN (United Nations Department of Social Affairs Population Division) (2006) International Migration report 2006: A Global Assessment. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/2006_MigrationRep/report.htm2 MPI (Migration Policy Institute) (2005) Top ten countries with the highest share of migrants in the total population. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/charts/6.2.shtml3 MPI (2007) Regional remittances profiles. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/dataHub/remit_pdf/All_regions.pdf4 & 5 MPI (n.d.) Global city migration map. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/gcmm.cfm[Page 443]Digest: Migration–Human Rights Watch (2004) France: Headscarf Ban Violates Religious Freedom. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2004/02/26/france-headscarf-ban-violates-religious-freedom–IOM (n.d.) About Migration. Retrieved January 5, 2008, from http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/pid/3–2006) Human Rights and Religion: The Islamic Headscarf Debate in Europe. Portland, OR: Hart.(–MPI (2007) Regional remittances profiles. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/dataHub/remit_pdf/All_regions.pdfCreativity & HybridityCreativity & Innovation Indices1 2003) Human Accomplishment. New York: HarperCollins.(2 2003) Assessing Australia's Innovative Capacity in the 21st Century (pp. 30–31). Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.mbs.edu/home/jgans/papers/Innovation%20Index%20Australia.pdfand (3 THES (Times Higher Education Supplement) (2008) World University Rankings 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008, from http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/hybrid.asp?typeCode=243&pubCode=1&navcode=137Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2008) Academic Ranking of World Universities 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008, from http://www.arwu.org/rank2008/EN2008.htm4 BusinessWeek and Boston Consulting Group (2008) ‘The world's 50 most innovative companies’. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://bwnt.businessweek.com/interactive_reports/innovative_companies/5 2007) 2006European Regional Innovation Scoreboard. Retrieved August 25, 2008, from http://www.proinno-europe.eu/ScoreBoards/Scoreboard2006/pdf/eis_2006_regional_innovation_scoreboard.pdf(Digest: Creativity & Innovation Indices–1996) Creativity in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.(–2008) Gunn-Report: BBDO liegt vorn. Retrieved February 9, 2009, from http://www.horizont.net/aktuell/agenturen/pages/protected/Gunn-Report-BBDO-liegt-vorn_80176.html(–Cropley, A.J. (ed.) (1999) Encyclopedia of Creativity. San Diego: Academic Press.–2002) The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.(–Gunn Report (2008) Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.marketingdirecto.com/estudios/Gunn%20Report%202008%20-%20Top%205.pdf–2008) ‘Creative knowledge environments’, Creativity Research Journal, 20(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400410802060018, and (–1999) Handbook of CreativityCambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(–1999) Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research ((2nd ed.). New York/London: Guilford Press.[Page 444]HybridityLanguages1 Ethnologue (2005) Languages of the World. Retrieved May 9, 2009, from Ethnologue Web site: http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp2 Byte Level Research, MarketingSherpa, Inc. (2006) Website Globalization Report 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2008, from eMarketer database.3 SIL (Summer Institute for Linguistics) (1999) The World's Most Widely Spoken Languages. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/languages.htm4 Website Tips (n.d.) Font foundries. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://websitetips.com/fonts/foundries/Digest: Languages–2007) ‘English as a lingua franca and globalization: An interconnected perspective’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17(3): 332–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijal.2007.17.issue-3(–2006) ‘Talking up China: An analysis of China's rising cultural power and global promotion of the Chinese language’, East Asia, 23(2): 3–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12140-006-0021-2and (–2003) ‘Mixed language varieties of migrant adolescents and the discourse of hybridity’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 24(1–2): 12–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434630308666487(–IOM (International Organization for Migration) (n.d.) About Migration. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/lang/en–2006) A Brief History of Type. 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Retrieved May 21, 2008, from eMarketer database.5 University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Center for Marketing Research (2008, July) Select Social Media Used by US Companies, 2007 & 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from eMarketer database.ECO1 Nielson Online (2008) Greenwashing: Who's Winning the Green Race Online? Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://www.netratings.com/emc/0803_wb/NielsenOnline_Sustainability_Webinar_April%202008_Clients.pdf[Page 445]2 2005) A Global Index of Biocultural Diversity. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from Science Direct database.and (UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (2007) Global Environmental Outlook: GEO4 Environment for Development. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from http://www.unep.org/geo/geo4/media/3 Earth Pledge (2008) New York Fashion Week 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://earthpledge.org/ff/designers-and-showsecoStyle (2008) ecoStyle. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.ecostylemalaysia.com/Ethical Fashion Show (2007) A Fashionable Event. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.ethicalfashionshow.com/efs2/efs_2007.htmlFashion Week (2007) Designers at Seattle's Green Fashion Week 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from http://fw07.com/designers.htmlFasity (n.d.) Eco-Chic: Green Is Gold at Eco-Fashion Show. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.fasity.com/content/eco-chic-green-goldeco-fashion-showGreen Cotton (2007) Eco Fashion Week in London. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://greencotton.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/eco-fashion-week-in-london/No Good For Me (2008) To Go: Catwalk on the Wild Side, SF Design Center Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://nogoodforme.filmstills.org/blog/archives/2006/06/08/to_go_catwalk_o.htmlWaitakere City Council (2006) The Trusts Trash to Fashion Awards. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/ArtCul/ae/trashtofashion/trashresults06.asp#supreme4 2006) Biofuels: History, Current Use, and Policy. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jkohara/Biofuels_10_13_06.pdf(5 Green Museum (2009) Environmental Artists. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.greenmuseum.org/archive_index.phpDigest: Eco–2008, July 4) Secret Report: Biofuel Caused Food Crisis. Retrieved July 10, 2008, from The Guardian web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/03/biofuels.renewableenergy(–FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2008) World Food Situation: High Food Prices. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/FoodPricesIndex/en/–2005) ‘A global index of biocultural diversity’, Ecological Indicators, 5(3): 231–241. 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